Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Bingo Order--GOP Racists

Bingo Order--GOP Racists

Ratings: (0)|Views: 12,636 |Likes:
Published by Roger Shuler
Order from federal judge accusing Alabama Republicans of acting with racist motives.
Order from federal judge accusing Alabama Republicans of acting with racist motives.

More info:

Published by: Roger Shuler on Oct 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF ALABAMA, NORTHERN DIVISIONUNITED STATES OF AMERICA))v.) CRIMINAL ACTION NO.) 2:10cr186-MHT MILTON E. McGREGOR,) (WO)THOMAS E. COKER,)LARRY P. MEANS,)JAMES E. PREUITT,)HARRI ANNE H. SMITH,)JARRELL W. WALKER, JR.,)and JOSEPH R. CROSBY)OPINIONDefendants Milton E. McGregor, Thomas E. Coker,Robert B. Geddie, Jr., Larry P. Means, James E. Preuitt,Quinton T. Ross, Jr., Harri Anne H. Smith, Jarrell W. Walker, Jr., and Joseph R. Crosby were charged in a 39-count indictment, which included charges of federal programs bribery, extortion, honest services mail andwire fraud, money laundering, making a false statement,obstruction of justice, and conspiracy to commit federal programs bribery. At the conclusion of the evidence, and as required bylaw, United States v. Hewes, 729 F.2d 1302, 1312 (11th
Case 2:10-cr-00186-MHT-WC Document 1916 Filed 10/20/11 Page 1 of 44
2Cir. 1984), the court made oral findings, with the promise that a written opinion would follow, that thegovernment had shown by a preponderance of the evidenceall of the requisites for the admissibility of the co-conspirator statements about which evidence has beenreceived against each defendant except Crosby.In the meantime, a jury found Geddie and Ross notguilty on all counts and found McGregor, Coker, Means,Preuitt, Smith, Walker, and Crosby not guilty on somecounts and was unable to reach a verdict on the remainingcounts; however, the admissibility of co-conspiratorstatements is still an issue for the retrial of the sevendefendants. Therefore, for purposes of the retrial ofthe seven defendants, this written opinion memorializesthe court’s oral findings, and further sets forth thereasons for the court’s conclusion that the governmenthas proven, except as to Crosby, the requisites for theadmissibility of these statements by a preponderance ofthe evidence.
Case 2:10-cr-00186-MHT-WC Document 1916 Filed 10/20/11 Page 2 of 44
3I.The existence of a conspiracy and the defendant’s participation in it are preliminary questions of factthat must be resolved by the court pursuant to Fed. R.Evid. 104(a) before a co-conspirator statement may beadmitted into evidence. Bourjaily v. United States, 483U.S. 171, 175 (1987). The court must apply a preponderance-of-the-evidence standard in determiningwhether such preliminary questions of fact have beenestablished under Rule 104(a). See id. at 176. Thecourt has discretion to require the government toestablish the elements of admissibility prior toreceiving co-conspirator statements, or, alternatively,to admit the out-of-court statements on the conditionthat the government subsequently produce independentevidence of the conspiracy. See United States v. Miller,664 F.2d 826, 827-28 (11th Cir. 1981).
Case 2:10-cr-00186-MHT-WC Document 1916 Filed 10/20/11 Page 3 of 44

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->