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Phuong Phap Toa Do Voi Bai Toan Hinh Hoc Phang_HVA

Phuong Phap Toa Do Voi Bai Toan Hinh Hoc Phang_HVA

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Published by: Nguyễn Nhựt Trường on Oct 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/22/2014

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........GPHApTOA
DO
V~IBAI
ToAN
,
~
HINHHOCPHANG
Ha
Vii
Anh
Tnrong
THPT
ChuyenVinh
Phuc
T6m
tAt
nQidung
Thong
cacky
olimpic,bai
toan
hlnh
hoc
c6
di@n
luon
Ill,
mot
trongnhUng
bai
toan
hay.
Cai
hayeiia
bai
toan
khongchi
d
dO
kh6ciiabai
toan,
rna
con
in
chtra
trong
k~t
quAciiabai
toan,
nhtrngdijc
trung,
tfnh
chAt
hlnhhocdirockhaithac.
v~
m~t
nguyen
tAc,
bAtkymOtbill
tOM
hlnh
hocnaocung
c6
th@
giai
dirocbang
phirong
phap
toa
dO
(phuong
phap
d~
86).
Thy
nhien,
nhi~u
bAi
toan
hlnh
hoc
giai.
bAngphirong
phap
tOng
hop
thong
thuC1ng
lai
did@nk~t
qua
mot
eachkha
nhanh
chong,va
dirong
nhien
len
giM
eiing
dep
honnhieu.
Ciing
vij,y,
nhieubaitoan
hlnhhoc
diroc
giAi
moteach
nhanh
ch6ng,
gon
gang,
n@u
sic
dung
phtrong
phap
vecto,
C6th@
n6irAng,
phuong
phap
toa
dO
18.
mot
phtrongphap
van
nang,c6
th@
giAi
dircc
moibai
toan
hlnhhoc.Nhungviec
giai
nhanh
hay
cham,
lai
ph"
thuQc
rit
nhieu
V80
phtrongphap,
ky
nang
tinh
toancuachungta,phu
thuoc
V80
viec
chonh~
true
toa
dQInc
ban
dA,u
nhir
th~
nao,Cac
boo
toan
diroc
trlnh
bay
trongbaa
coo
nay,
d~udtroc
giai
bAng
phirongphaptoandQ,
mac
du
Cling
c6th@dtlQc
gi8,i
bbg
phtrongphapkhac,
Vi~c
ti~p
can,
khaithacbai
toan
tit
nhieu
hirdng,
nhieukhfacanhsedemlai
nhfmg
IfJiIch
ldn,
Do
khuon
khO
ciiabal
vi@t,
trong
ban
baa
coo
nay,
cluingtoichid~
c~p
d~n
viec
giru
toanhlnh
hQC
phbgtrong
he
toa
dQ
Descartesvuong
g6c,
chiikhongneu
phirongphap
giai
bAng
hlnh
hoc
afin,
trong
h~
toa
do
afin.
va
chung
toi
Cling
chi
trmhviecchon
he
truetoa
dO
nhir
th~
naokhi
ti~p
c~vdi
moi
bai
tom
hinhhocc6di~n.Vi~c
giAi
toanhinh
hoc
bbg
cong
cutoa
dO,
khongchidonthudn
la
tfnh
toantrencacbi@u
thirc.
Di~u
quantrong
nhit,
cAn
phai
chon
dtrcc
mot
he
toa
dQ
thich
hop;
ngoaira,
khai
thac
tOt
cac
tfnh
chAt,
d~trunghlnh
hoc
ciiabaitoan
se
giupcho
qua
trlnh
toandongian,
hieu
qua
va
nhanh
gonhon.
?
36
Phtrongphaptoa
dQ
giai
toan
htnh
hocphang
Khi
dirngtrirdc
mot
baitoanhlnhhoc,
chung
tathirongxem
xet,
phan
tfch
ky
canggiathi~t,k~t
luan
ciiabaitoan,nham
muc
dich
tim
toilbi
giaichobaitoan..
N~ucacy~u
t6
chotrong
baitoannhu
giaodi~m,
trungdi~m,
tfnh
song
song,tinh:
vuongg6c...thlphirong
phap
toa
dt)
la
mot
hra
ChQD
tfit
d~giaihili
toan.
Thynhien,
n~u
trongbai
toanco
nhieuhonmotdirong
tron,
co
dirong
phangiachaydien
tfchcua
hmh,
tacfing
co
th@
chonmOt
he
toa
dQ
thfch
hQP
d~
giro.
VAn
d~
d~t
ra
lith~
toa
de.
d6
se
duoc
chon
nhir
th~
nao?
Chung
ta
hay
cung
tim
hi~u
vAn
d~
nay
thong
qua
mot
s6
VI
du
sau.
Vi
d~
1.
Chodi~m
A
nam
tren
dirong
tron
(0)
va
goi(~)18.ti~ptuyen
tai
A
cua
dirongtron
(0).
Xet
diem
M
trong
mat
phang
c6
tfnhch~tkhoang
each
til
M
tdi
(6.)
bangdQdaiti~p
tuyen
MT
ke
tdi
dirong
tron
(T
E
(0)).
188
 
1.
Timquytfch
M
2.
Chirngminhr~ngdirongtron
tam
M,
ban
kinh
MT
luonti~pxucvdi
mot
dirongtronc6
dinh.
.
LiJi
gidi.
1.
Chonh~truetoadQ
Axy
sao
cho
A(O;
0),
O(R;
0)
[va
do
do
dirong
th!ng~,
co
phirong
trlnh
x
0).
Khido,
voimoidi~m
M(x;
y)
trong
h~true,ta
coMH-
d{M;Ay)
Ixlva
MT2
/\40
2
OT
2
(x-R)2
+
y2
'R2.·
MHMTLx
2
(x
R)2
+
y2
R2Ly2
2Rx.
Suy
ra
M
chay
trenparabol
P:
y2
2Rx.
NgllQC
l~i,vdim6i
di~m
M(frt;
Y)
E
P
thi
d(M;
Ay)
¥i
va
y2
2R-
R
22
Y
2R
Do
do
MTd(M;
Ay).
V~y,
quy
tichdi~m
M
cAn
tlm
Iiidirongparabol,c6
dinh
tai
A,
tieudi~m
Ill,
trungdi~m
I
cua
AO
I
I
II
...
A
1
o
Hinh
1
2.
GQi.£
ladirong
chuancua
'P,
khi
do
l
co
phirong
trtnh
x~..
Tit
giathiet,suyra,v(ji
M(xo;
Yo),
thl
MI
d(M;
£)
Xo
+~,
MT
+~.
V~y,
duong
tron
tam
M,
ban
kfnh
MT
luon
ti~p
xucvoi
duongtronduong
kfnh
AO
c6
dinh.
Nhiin.
xet.
(i)
N~u
bo
giathi~t~ti~pxticvdi
(0)
thl
quy
tfchlit
mot
parabol,
thuduocparabol
d
trenb~ngmotpheptinhti~ntheo
phirong
dirong
thing
qua0
vuongg6c
vdi
tl.
(ii)
D~
Y
r~ng,dirongtron
tam
M,
ban
kinh
MT
truegiaovdiduongtron
(0).
Do
do,
phep
nghich
dao
C1]C
0,
phuongtich
R2
giu
bAt
bi~n
haidirongtron
nay,
bien~
189
 
,
thanh
dirong
tron
dtrongkinh
AO.
Ttl
do,
do
tinhbaagiacva
tinh
d6i
hQPcua
phepnghichdao,
suy
radirongtron
tam.
M,
bankfnh
MT
luonti~p
XUC
vdidtrongtron
dirongkinh
AO.
K~t
hQP
voidinhnghiaparabol,tacung
diroc
quytichcua
M
la
??
parabol
c6
dinh
A,
tieudiem
18.
trungdiem
AO
Vi
d1'
2.
Chodi~m
A
11[lTI
trendirong
thing
b,..
Xet
B,
Ctrongmatphangsaocho
AB--b,
AC
c,
(b,
c
>
0
cho
trudc)
va
dirongth!ng
!l
a
phan
giac
cua
gae'
LBAC.
GQi
M
la
dinh
thli
tu
cuahlnhblnh
hanh
dung
tren
hai
canh
AB
va
AG.
.Tim
quy
tfch
M..
LiJigidi.·
Trudehet,
tit
gia
thi~tta
nhandiroc
B,C
n~m
v~
cimg
mot
phfa
ciiadtrongth~ng
qua
A,
vuongg6c
vdi
tl.
vacacdirong
thAng
AB,
AC
d5iximgnhau
qua
dirong
th!ng
tl..
Chon
h~·tr\1c
toa
dQ
Axy
sao
cho
B(b
1;
b
2
t
C
Cl;C2)
trongd6
..--....~
~
b~
+
b~
v,
ci
+
4
c
2,
va
b1Cl
>
0,
b
2
C
2
<
o.
Khido,
do
AMAB+AC
nen
M(b
1
+
Cl;
b
2
+
C2)
+
Neu
b1Cl·
0
thl
M(O;b
2
+
C2)
E
Ay
+
N~u
b1Cl
=I
0thlKh6ng
mAt
tfnhtfrnhquat,
coi
b
2-
kb
1,
C2-
k
f
0,00.Khidotugiathi~t
suyra
,-
B
A
Hlnh
2
.
Tit
do,
vdi
M(x;
y)
thi
x
b
1
+
Cl,
Y
b
2
+
C2.
Suy
ra
x
b
1+.Cl
x
2-
b~
+
c~
+
2b
1
C
l
Do
(I)
x
2
y2
y-
Vi
v~y,
M
chay
tren
duongelipcophirongtrlnhchod
(*)
Vi
dy,
3.
Cho
badi~m
A,B
va
C
thiinghang
theo
thu
tl1,
goi
tl,.
la
dtrongth!ng
vuong
goc
voi
dirong
thAng
AC
tai
B.
V{Ji
moi
di~m
S
E/)""
goi
D
Iii
giaodi~mcuaduongthangqua
B
vuongg6evdi
se
vdidtrong
th!ng
SA.
TIm
{D}Lai
giai.
Chonh~toadQ
Bxy
saocho
A(-
a;0),
C(c;
O)(a,
c
>
0),8(0,
s),
s
=I
O.Khi
d6
.
(SA):
=
+
¥_
1,
isc».
-=
+
¥_
1
}>
(BD):~~
0
a
sc
sse
190

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