Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
37Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Allopurinol

Allopurinol

Ratings:

5.0

(1)
|Views: 1,591|Likes:
Published by api-3797941

More info:

Published by: api-3797941 on Oct 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

allopurinol
(al ohpure' i nole)
Apo-Allopurinol (CAN), Purinol (CAN), Zyloprim
Pregnancy Category C
Drug class
Antigout drug
Therapeutic actions

Inhibits the enzyme responsible for the conversion of purines to uric acid, thus reducing the production of uric acid with a decrease in serum and sometimes in urinary uric acid levels, relieving the signs and symptoms of gout

Indications
\u2022
Management of the signs and symptoms of primary and secondary gout
\u2022
Management of patients with malignancies that result in elevations of serum and
urinary uric acid
\u2022
Management of patients with recurrent calcium oxalate calculi whose daily uric
acid excretion exceeds 800 mg/day (males) or 750 mg/day (females)
\u2022
Orphan drug use: Treatment of Chagas' disease; cutaneous and visceral
leishmaniasis
\u2022
Unlabeled uses: Amelioration of granulocyte suppression with fluorouracil; as a
mouthwash to prevent fluorouracil-induced stomatitis
Contraindications and cautions
\u2022
Contraindicated with allergy to allopurinol, blood dyscrasias.
\u2022
Use cautiously with liver disease, renal failure, lactation, pregnancy.
Available forms
Tablets\u2014100, 300 mg
Dosages
ADULTS
\u2022
Gout and hyperuricemia: 100\u2013800 mg/day PO in divided doses, depending on the
severity of the disease (200\u2013300 mg/day is usual dose).
\u2022
Maintenance: Establish dose that maintains serum uric acid levels within normal
limits.
\u2022
Prevention of acute gouty attacks: 100 mg/day PO; increase the dose by 100 mg
at weekly intervals until uric acid levels are within normal limits.
\u2022
Prevention of uric acid nephropathy in certain malignancies: 600\u2013800 mg/day
PO for 2\u20133 days; maintenance dose should then be established as above.
\u2022
Recurrent calcium oxalate stones: 200\u2013300 mg/day PO; adjust dose up or down
based on 24-hr urinary urate determinations.
PEDIATRIC PATIENTS
\u2022

Secondary hyperuricemia associated with various malignancies:
6\u201310 yr: 300 mg/day PO.
< 6 yr: 150 mg/day; adjust dosage after 48 hr of treatment based on serum uric

acid levels.
GERIATRIC PATIENTS OR PATIENTS WITH RENAL IMPAIRMENT

For geriatric patient or patients with creatinine clearance 10\u201320 mL/min, 200 mg/day; for
creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min, 100 mg/day; for creatinine clearance < 3 mL/min,
intervals between doses will need to be extended, based on patient's serum uric acid
levels.

Adverse effects

CNS: Headache, drowsiness, peripheral neuropathy, neuritis, paresthesias
Dermatologic: Rashes\u2014maculopapular, scaly or exfoliative\u2014sometimes fatal
GI: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastritis, hepatomegaly,

hyperbilirubinemia, cholestatic jaundice
GU: Exacerbation of gout and renal calculi, renal failure
Hematologic: Anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia,
bone marrow depression
Interactions
Drug-drug
\u2022
Increased risk of hypersensitivity reaction with ACE inhibitors
\u2022
Increased toxicity with thiazide diuretics
\u2022
Increased risk of rash with ampicillin
\u2022
Increased risk of bone marrow suppression with cyclophosphamide, other
cytotoxic agents
\u2022
Increased half-life of oral anticoagulants
\u2022
Increased serum levels of theophylline
\u2022
Increased risk of toxic effects with thiopurines, 6-MP (azathioprine dose and dose
of 6-MP should be reduced to one-third to one-fourth the usual dose)
Nursing considerations
Assessment
\u2022
History: Allergy to allopurinol, blood dyscrasias, liver disease, renal failure,
lactation
\u2022
Physical: Skin lesions, color; orientation, reflexes; liver evaluation, normal
urinary output; normal output; CBC, renal and liver function tests, urinalysis
Interventions
\u2022
Administer drug after meals.
\u2022
Encourage patient to drink 2.5 to 3 L/day to decrease the risk of renal stone
development.
\u2022
Check urine alkalinity\u2014urates crystallize in acid urine; sodium bicarbonate or
potassium citrate may be ordered to alkalinize urine.
\u2022
Arrange for regular medical follow-up and blood tests.

Activity (37)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
iceleaves liked this
Bea Magbanua liked this
Switzer Formon liked this
Nichole Brown liked this
Camille Üü liked this
valenciatoni_12 liked this
Angel Jay-r liked this
Ann Gleca Oberes liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->