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Deposition of Thin BST Films in a Multi-Wafer Planetary Reactor

Deposition of Thin BST Films in a Multi-Wafer Planetary Reactor

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Published by Fotis Fitsilis
P. Ehrhart, F. Fitsilis, et. al. “Deposition of Thin BST Films in a Multi-Wafer Planetary Reactor”, Integrated Ferroelectrics Vol. 30, p. 183 (2000)
P. Ehrhart, F. Fitsilis, et. al. “Deposition of Thin BST Films in a Multi-Wafer Planetary Reactor”, Integrated Ferroelectrics Vol. 30, p. 183 (2000)

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Published by: Fotis Fitsilis on Oct 22, 2011
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BST Deposition183Integrated Ferroelectrics 2000, Vol.
30
, pp. 183-192
DEPOSITION OF THIN BST FILMS IN A MULTI-WAFER PLANETARY REACTOR 
P. Ehrhart
1
, F. Fitsilis
1
, S. Regnery
1,2
, R. Waser 
1
 F. Schienle
2
, M. Schumacher 
2
, M. Dauelsberg
2
, P. Strzyzewski
2
, andH. Juergensen
2
1
IFF, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich, Germany
2
AIXTRON AG, Kackertstr. 15 - 17, D-52072 Aachen, GermanyWe report on the performance of a planetary multi-wafer reactor offering extremely high throughput due to the batch mode processingand a low cost of ownership. This reactor is combined with a liquiddelivery system which mixes the liquid precursors from three differentsources: 0.35 molar solutions of Ba(thd)
2
and Sr(thd)
2
and a 0.4 molar solution of Ti(O-iPr)
2
(thd)
2
. The composition and microstructure of thefilms were routinely investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-rayfluorescence analysis. As a direct consequence of the reactor design weobtain high efficiencies for the precursor incorporation in the order of 40%. Furthermore, we obtain a high uniformity of the films over 6 inchwafers. Details of the chemistry and microstructure were investigated bysecondary neutral mass spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The electrical film properties are discussed in relation to microstructural properties.Keywords MOCVD; (Ba,Sr)TiO
3
; multi-wafer reactor, liquid delivery;
 
P.Ehrhart et al.184
1. INTRODUCTION
(Ba
x
Sr 
1-x
)TiO
3,
(BST), is one of the prime candidates as a high-k-dielectric in integrated high-density capacitors for future (multi-GBit)DRAM memory cells
[1]
and remarkable progress has been achieved inthe metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of thin BSTfilms
[2-7]
. Most of the experimental reactors used for the development of mass production tools presently are conventional single wafer showerhead designs
[5-7]
and we report as a comparison on the performance of a planetary multi-wafer reactor offering extremely highthroughput due to possible batch mode processing resulting in low costof ownership. We first give a short description of the reactor followed by some characteristics of its performance within a complex process parameter field.In the second part we report on the first results on the properties of theobtained BST films which were deposited on SiO
2
/Si and onPt/SiO
2
/TiO
2
/Si wafers with different texture of the Pt metallizationfilm. The composition and microstructure of the films were routinelyinvestigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)analysis, using different calibration standards prepared by chemicalsolution deposition. Substrates without Ti adhesion layer were usedadditionally for the XRF analysis since the penetration depth of the x-ray beam is too large to distinguish the Ti in the BST from the Ti of theadhesion layer. The chemistry of the interface was investigated bysecondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS), and details of themicrostructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The electrical properties were investigated after sputter-deposition and structuring of a Pt top electrode by standard techniques.
2. REACTOR DESIGN
An AIXTRON 2600G3 Planetary Reactor 
®
was used which can handlefive 6-inch wafers simultaneously. As shown in Fig.1 the wafers are placed on a coated graphite susceptor which rotates typically at 8 rpmand carries five smaller plates (satellites) which rotate by gas foilrotation. The gas inlet is in the center of the reactor providing a purehorizontal gas flow direction which makes this reactor a radial flow
 
BST Deposition185
 
FIGURE 1: The planetary reactor loaded with 5 wafers.
system. A liquid precursor delivery system, ATMI-300B
[8]
, mixes theliquid precursors of three different sources: 0.35 molar solutions of Ba(thd)
2
and Sr(thd)
2
and a 0.4 molar solution of Ti(O-iPr)
2
(thd)
2
. Theliquid mixture is delivered by a micro-pump to the vaporizer on top of the reactor. Hot Argon gas at the evaporation temperature of 235°Ccarries the evaporated solution through a quartz nozzle to the substrate.All MOCVD experiments were carried out at reduced pressure (below3 mbar) in order to increase the gas diffusivity and prevent pre-reactions. The deposition temperatures varied between 500-700°C. The process conditions are summarized in table 1.TABLE 1: Typical deposition conditions for BST filmsSubstrate temperature 500 750°CReactor pressure 1-3 mbar O
2
flow rate 50-500 sccm N
2
O flow rate 50-500 sccmLiquid source feeding rate 0.08ml/sVaporization temperature 225 245°CFilm thickness 15-75 nm

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