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Table Of Contents

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
What’s So Hard About It?
1.1 Experimental studies
1.2 Observational studies
1.3 Some examples
1.4 Difficulties
1.4.1 Common cause
1.4.2 Complete confounding
1.4.3 Reverse/two-way causality
1.4.4 Selection
1.4.5 Regression to the mean
1.4.6 Simpson
1.4.7 Promotion and prevention
1.5 Randomization
Causal Questions
2.1 Effects of Causes and Causes of Effects
2.2 Similarities and differences
2.3 Hypotheticals and counterfactuals
2.4 Probability and Decision Theory
2.5 Potential responses
2.6 What can we know?
Formal Frameworks
3.1 Stochastic model
3.2 Potential response model
3.3 Structural model
3.3.1 Extended structural model
3.4 Functional model
3.5 Fitness for purpose
Some Assumptions
4.1 Exchangeability
4.1.1 Simple case
4.1.2 de Finetti’s theorem
4.1.3 Conditional exchangeability
4.1.4 Causal inference
4.1.5 Extensions
4.1.6 PR approach
4.2 Treatment-unit additivity
4.3 Stable unit-treatment value assumption
4.4 Is there a “fundamental problem of causal inference”?
Conditional Independence
5.1 Properties and axioms
5.2 Further axioms?
5.3 Extension to non-stochastic variables
5.4 Conditional independence as a language for causality
Directed Acyclic Graphs
6.1 DAG representation of a distribution
6.2 Factorization of the density
6.2.1 Ancestral sets
6.3 Conditional independence properties implied by a DAG
6.4 Moralization
6.5 d-separation
6.6 Markov equivalence
6.7 Influence diagrams
Causal Interpretations Of DAGs
7.1 Intervention DAGs
7.1.1 Seeing and doing
7.2 Augmented DAGs
7.2.1 Extensions
7.3 Functional DAGs
7.3.1 Latent variable models
7.4 Functional intervention models
Computing Causal Effects
8.1 General approach
8.2. DAG MODELS AND PEARL’S “DO CALCULUS” 59
8.2 DAG models and Pearl’s “do calculus”
8.2.1 Back-door and front-door
8.3 Nonidentifiability of causal effect
8.3.1 Bow-pattern
8.3.2 Parent-child bow
9.4 Sufficient covariate
9.5 Allocation process
9.6 Potential responses
9.7 Confounding
9.8 Nonconfounding
9.8.1 Other conditions
9.8.2 ‘No unobserved confounders’
9.9 Deconfounding
9.9.1 Complete confounding
9.9.2 External standardization
9.10 Average causal effect
9.10.1 Potential responses
Reduction Of Sufficient Covariate
10.1 Reduction of effect on Y
10.1.1 Minimal response-sufficiency
10.2 Reduction of effect on T
10.2.1 Allocation process
10.3. PROPENSITY SCORING IN PRACTICE 75
10.2.2 Minimal treatment-sufficiency
10.3 Propensity scoring in practice
10.4 A complication
10.5 Joint reduction?
Instrumental Variables
11.1 Causal inference
11.2 Null hypothesis
11.3 Linear model
11.4 Binary case
11.4.1 Instrumental inequalities
11.4.2 Causal inequalities
11.4.3 General discrete variables
Effect Of Treatment On The
12.1 Special cases
12.1.1 Allocation variable
12.1.2 Potential responses
12.2 Uniqueness of ETT
Dynamic Treatment Strategies
13.1 More structure
13.2 Other conditions
13.3 PR approach
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Fundamentals of Statistical Causality

Fundamentals of Statistical Causality

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: ipixtlan on Oct 22, 2011
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05/24/2012

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