censorship from 1644. Individuals must be left free to express theiropinions, to propose and adhere to ideas because an individual’expression carries their life (Milton 2006). Similarly, an investment can beconsidered an expression of one’s life. They must be left alone to win oversupporters.
An intellectual history with a focus on disciplines
We can reconstruct the libertarian doctrine from various perspectives of social disciplines. Libertarian ideas expressed in each of these disciplineswould have a starting point and an evolution formulated within eachbranch.
From a political science perspective
, in the 16
century, Etiennede la Boetie deplores and explains the phenomenon of pyramidal controlof political authority which keeps citizens in a state of “voluntaryservitude”.
From a political philosophy perspective
, in the 17
century, John Locke develops a model of the state of nature, in which the fourfundamental negative rights remain the same before and after a socialcontract; better management is the sole reason for the contract. Lockegives a libertarian twist to contractualism by stating that the correct socialrules are those which are voluntarily decided upon or would be voluntarydecided upon in a collective contract under certain conditions.
From the perspective of political and social philosophy
, David Hume continues theevolutionist conception of norms. The rules which stimulated mutuallyadvantageous activities come out of repeated attempts of each individualto interact with others by pursuing their own interest. The successful onesare those which are not blocked (Hume 1978).
From the perspective of philosophy of law
, during the 19
century, Albert Venn Dicey restatesDavid Hume’s arguments and explains the advantages of precedent-basedEnglish justice system compared to a centralized legal system. It is not thecommand-type of laws of the central political authority which are a sourceof law but the patterns of free interaction between people and thesolutions given to private disputes. We know that certain outcomes aresatisfying solutions when we observe that in time, under the assumption of liberty, they are copied in similar cases: they prove acceptable to all thoseinvolved (Dicey, 1986).
From the perspective of economics
, Gustave deMolinari (2011), also in the 19
century, observes that competitionimproves economic services and the production, application andinterpretation of law are also economic services, and wonders why weshouldn’t introduce competition in these fields as well. The idea that justice can be privatized will be the focus of an anarcho-capitalist researchprogram within economics starting with the 1970s. What is at stake isprotecting the right of individuals to choose the rules which govern theirlives.