Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
阅读

阅读

Ratings: (0)|Views: 21|Likes:
Published by api-3738980

More info:

Published by: api-3738980 on Oct 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

\u516d\u7ea7 \u4e0e\u56db \u7ea7\u7684 \u533a\u522b \uff1a

\u4e00\u3001\u8bcd\u2014\u2014\u8bcd\u6c47\u91cf5500\u3002
\u4e8c\u3001\u53e5\u2014\u2014\u51fa\u9898\u8003\u957f\u53e5\u5b50\u3002
\u4e09\u3001\u6bb5\u2014\u2014\u6240\u6709\u53e5\u5b50\u90fd\u8ba4\u8bc6\uff0c\u4f46\u4e0d\u77e5\u9053\u6574\u6bb5\u7684\u610f\u601d\u3002But, Yet, However \u8f6c\u6298\u8fde\u8bcd\u540e\u9762\u662f
\u91cd\u70b9\uff0c\u5e38\u8003\u70b9\u3002
\u56db\u3001\u9009\u9879\u2014\u2014\u6709\u8ff7\u60d1\u9009\u9879\uff0c\u4e0d\u50cf\u56db\u7ea7\u90a3\u4e48\u6e05\u6670\u3002

\u539f\u6587 \u91cd\u73b0 \uff1a\u539f\u6587\u544a\u8bc9\u4f60\u9009\u4ec0\u4e48\uff0c\u4f60\u5c31\u5e94\u8be5\u9009\u4ec0\u4e48\uff0c\u4e0d\u80fd\u51ed\u611f\u89c9\u548c\u60f3\u8c61\u3002
\u5c3d\u91cf \u5c11\u8bfb \uff1a\u516d\u7ea7\u66f4\u591a\u7684\u5bf9\u70b9\u51fa\u9898\uff0c\u800c\u4e0d\u662f\u5bf9\u9762\u51fa\u9898\u3002
\u516d
\u7ea7
\u9898
\u578b
\uff1a
1.\u4e3b\u65e8 \u9898\uff08 Sum Up/Title\uff09-- \u770b\u6587 \u7ae0\u6bcf \u6bb5\u7b2c \u4e00\u53e5
24. Which of the following can best sum up the passage?
A) Advantages and disadvantages of automation.
B) Labour and the effects of automation.
C) Unemployment benefit plans and automation.
D) Social benefits of automation.
\u6ce8\uff1a\u6587\u7ae0\u4e09\u6bb5\u7b2c\u4e00\u53e5\u90fd\u51fa\u73b0automation\uff0c\u4e24\u6bb5\u51fa\u73b0labour\uff0c\u56e0\u6b64\u8fd9\u4e24\u4e2a\u8bcd\u662f\u91cd\u70b9\uff0c\u5fc5\u7136
\u5728\u9009\u9879\u4e2d\u51fa\u73b0\u3002

Automation refers to the introduction of electronic control and automatic operation of productive machinery. It reduces the human factors, mental and physical, in production, and is designed to make possible the manufacture of more goods with fewer workers. The development of automation in American industry has been called the

"Second
Industrial
Revolution".
\u6ce8\uff1arefers to \u4e0b\u5b9a\u4e49
Labour's concern over automation arises from uncertainty about the effects on

employment, and fears of major changes in jobs. In the main, labour has taken the view that resistance to technical change is unfruitful. Eventually, the result of automation may well be an increase in employment, since it is expected that vast industries will grow up around manufacturing, maintaining, and repairing automation equipment. The interest of labour lies in bringing about the transition with a minimum of inconvenience and distress to the workers involved. Also, union spokesmen emphasize that the benefit of the increased production and lower costs made possible by automation should be shared by workers in the form of higher wages, more leisure, and improved living standards.

\u6ce8\uff1alabour \u96c7\u5458

To protect the interests of their members in the era ofautomation, unions have adopted a number of new policies. One of these is the promotion of supplementary unemployment benefit plans. It is emphasized that since the employer involved in such a plan has a direct financial interest in preventing unemployment, he will have a strong drive for planning new installations so as to cause the least possible problems in jobs and job assignments. Some unions are working for dismissal pay agreements, requiring that permanently dismissed workers be paid a sum of money based on length of service. Another approach is the idea of the "improvement factor", which calls for wage increases based on increases in productivity. It is possible, however, that labour will rely mainly on reduction in working hours in order to gain a full share in

the fruits of automation.
\u6ce8\uff1aunion \u5de5\u4f1a\uff0c\u548c\u96c7\u5458\u6709\u5173
2.\u8bcd\u6c47\u9898 \u2014\u2014 \u627e\u8bcd \u6240\u5728 \u53e5\u5b50 \u5173\u7cfb

\u8f6c\u6298\u5173\u7cfb\u3002\u4f8b\u5982\uff1a\u516d\u7ea7\u5f88\u96be\uff0c\u4f46\u662f\u2026\u2026\uff0c\u627e\u8f6c\u6298\u8fde\u8bcdBut, Yet, However\u3002
\u5e76\u5217\u5173\u7cfb\u3002\u4f8b\u5982\uff1aA and B\uff0c\u95eeA\u5c31\u628aB\u5185\u5bb9\u586b\u8fdb\u53bb\u3002
\u89e3\u91ca\u5173\u7cfb\u3002\u7528because\u548c\u4ece\u53e5in which\u7b49\u8054\u7cfb\u3002
\u4f8b\u5982\uff1a

30. \u201cAn identifying figure\u201d (Line 2, Para. 5) refers to a person______.
A) who serves as a model for others

B) who is always successful
C) who can be depended upon
D) who has been rewarded for his success

\uff08\u6587\u7ae0\u524d\u56db\u6bb5\u7701\u7565\uff09

Admiration of one quality often leads us to admire a person as a whole,and he becomes an identifying figure. We use some people as models over a wide range of situations, imitating much that they do. We learn that they are dependable and rewarding models because imitating them leads to success.

\u6ce8\uff1a\u628a\u63e1and\u524d\u540e\u662f\u5e76\u5217\u5173\u7cfb\u3002
3.\u7ec6\u8282\u9898 -- \u76f4\u63a5 \u7ec6\u8282 \u3001\u56e0 \u679c\u63a8 \u7406\u3001 \u6697\u793a
\u4f8b\u5982\uff1a

31. It is implied that fifty years ago________ ____ .
A) eighty percent of American working people were employed in factories
B) twenty percent of American intellectuals were employees

C) the percentage of intellectuals in the total work force was almost the same as
that of industrial workers
D) the percentage of intellectuals working as employees was not so large as that
of industrial workers
34. According to the writer, professional knowledge or skill is_______ .
A) less important than awareness of being a good employee

B) as important as the ability to deal with public relations
C) more important than employer- employee relations
D) as important as the ability to co- operate with others in the organization

Ours has become a society of employees. A hundred years or so ago only one out of every five Americans at work was employed, i. e., worked for somebody else. Today only one out of five is not employed but working for himself. And when fifty

years ago "being employed" meant working as a factory labourer or as a farmhand,

the employee of today is increasingly a middle-class person with a substantial formal education, holding a professional or management job requiring intellectual and technical skills. Indeed, two things have characterized American society during these last fifty years: middle-class and upper - class employees have been the fastest- growing groups in our working population-growing so fast that the industrial worker, that oldest child of the Industrial Revolution, has been losing in numerical importance despite the expansion of industrial production.

Yet you will fine little if anything written on what it is to be an employee. You can find a great deal of very dubious advice on how to get a job or how to get a promotion. You can also find a good deal of work in a chosen field, whether it be the mechanist' s

1

trade or bookkeeping (\u7c3f\u8bb0). Every one of these trades requires different skills, sets different standards, and requires a different preparation. Yet they all have employeeship in common. And increasingly, especially in the large business or in government, employeeship is more important to success than the special

professional knowledge or skill. Certainly more people fail because they do not

know the requirements of being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills of their trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get into administrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to work within the organization rather than on technical abilities or professional knowledge.

4.\u4f5c\u8005 \u6001\u5ea6 \u9898\uff08 attitude\uff09\u2014\u2014\u6b63\u8d1f\u6001\u5ea6

\u51e1\u662f\u6587\u7ae0\u63a2\u8ba8\u65b0\u4e8b\u7269\u2014\u2014\u6b63\u6001\u5ea6 \u51e1\u662f\u6587\u7ae0\u63a2\u8ba8\u8001\u4e8b\u7269\u2014\u2014\u8d1f\u6001\u5ea6 \u4f8b\u5916\uff1a\u4e2d\u7acb\u9898

25. The writer\u2019s attitude towards the use of the telephone is______.
A) affectionate
B) disapproving
C) approving

D)neutral
\u25cf\u4f8b\u5b50\uff1a\u4f8b\u5b50\u5fc5\u51fa\u9898\u3002\u6587\u7ae0\u6709\u8bba\u70b9-\u8bba\u636e-\u8bba\u8bc1\uff0c\u4f8b\u5b50\u662f\u8bba\u8bc1\uff0c\u7528\u6765\u652f\u6301\u8bba\u70b9\uff0c\u6240\u4ee5\u7b80\u800c
\u8a00\u4e4b\uff0c\u4f8b \u5b50 \u672c \u8eab \u4e0d \u91cd \u8981 \uff0c \u4f46 \u524d \u540e \u8bba \u70b9 \u6781 \u5176 \u91cd \u8981 \u3002
\u4f8b\u5b50\u5f00\u59cb\u7684\u6807\u5fd7\uff1afor example\uff0c\u540e\u9762\u8ddf\u7740\u5927\u5199\u3001\u65f6\u95f4\u3001\u5e74\u4ee3\uff0c\u4f9d\u7136\u662f\u4e3e\u4f8b\u5185\u5bb9\u3002
\u4f8b\u5b50\u542b\u4e49\u7684\u6807\u5fd7\uff1ashow, tell, prove, demonstrate, find, clearly
[Page72]

In the United States, the need to protect plant and animal species has become a highlycontroversial and sharply political issue since the passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973. The act, designed to protect species' living areas, and

policies that preserve land and forests compete with economic interests. In the

1990's, for example, the woodcutters in the Western United States were challenged legally in their attempt to cut trees for timber in the Cascade Mountains. The challenge was mounted to protect the endangered spotted owl(\u732b\u5934\u9e70 ), whose remaining population occupies these forests and requires the intact, ancient forest for survival. The problematic situation set the interests of environmentalists against those of corporations and of individuals who stood to lose jobs. After months of debate and legal battles, the fate of the woodcutters-and the owls-was still undecided in mid- 1992.

\u6ce8\uff1a1. controversial\u7684\u610f\u601d\u662f\u53d7\u4e89\u8bae\u7684\uff0c\u540c\u201csharply political issue\u201d\uff0ccontro\u8868\u793a\u201c\u53cd
\u201d
2. for example\u524d\u53e5\u5b50\u662f\u91cd\u70b9
3. problematic\u60ac\u800c\u672a\u51b3\u7684

Similar tensions exist between the developed and the developing nations. Many people in industrialized nations, for example, believe that developing nations in tropical regions should do more to protect their rain forests and other natural areas.

But the developing countries may be impoverished (\u4f7f\u7a77\u56f0 ), with populations
growing so rapidly that using the land is a means to temporarily avoid
worsening
poverty
and
starvation.
\u6ce8\uff1a1. tension\u5f20\u529b\uff0c\u51b2\u7a81
2.\u770b\u5230similar\u5c31\u8bf4\u660e\u7b2c\u4e8c\u6bb5\u8bf4\u7684\u548c\u7b2c\u4e00\u6bb5\u4e00\u6837\u3002
3. But\u8f6c\u6298\u662f\u91cd\u70b9
Many of the changes to Earth that concern scientists have the potential to rob
the planet of its biological richness. The destruction of Earth's ozone layer (\u81ed\u6c27\u5c42),
for example, could contribute to the general process of impoverishment by allowing
ultra-violet rays to harm plants and animals. And global warming could wipe out
species unable to quickly adapt to changing climates. Clearly, protecting will come

only through coordinated international efforts to control human population, stabilize the composition of the atmosphere, and preserve intact Earth's complex web life.

36.Why does the author say that the protection of endangered species is a highly
controversial
issue?
A) Because people can't agree as to what species to protect.
B) Because it is difficult to find an effective way to protect such species.
C) Because it affects the interests of certain groups of people.
D) Because it is a major problem involving a series of legal procedures.
\u6ce8\uff1a\u7ec6\u8282\u9898\u3002\u7b2c\u4e00\u6bb5economic interests
\u25cf\u8868\u793a \u7edd\u5bf9 \u7684\u8bcd -- \u51fa\u73b0\u5728\u6587\u7ae0\u4e2d\uff0c\u662f\u975e\u5e38\u91cd\u8981\u7684\u51fa\u9898\u70b9\uff1b\u5982\u679c\u51fa\u73b0\u5728\u9009\u9879\u4e2d\uff0c\u5f88\u53ef\u80fd
\u662f\u4e0d\u5bf9\u7684\u3002
\u5168\u65e0\uff1anon-nothing-never-seldom-absolutely-hardly-little-few-prevent-exclude-
neither...nor
\u5168\u6709\uff1aall-every-full-either\u2026
\u552f\u4e00\uff1aonly-exactly- best-most
37.According to the passage, the preservation of rain forests________.
A) may hamper a developing country in its fight against poverty.
B)
benefits
developed
countries
rather
than
developing
countries.
C) should
take
priority over
the
control
of
human
population.
D) will help improve the living conditions in developing countries.
\u6ce8\uff1a\u7ec6\u8282\u9898\uff0c\u5bf9\u5e94\u6587\u7ae0\u7b2c\u4e8c\u6bb5\u3002\u4e3e\u4f8b\u524d\u90a3\u53e5\u8bdd\u66f4\u91cd\u8981\uff0c\u53ea\u8981\u8868\u8fbe\u51fa\u201c\u548c\u7ecf\u6d4e\u5229\u76ca\u51b2\u7a81\u201d
\u5c31\u5bf9\u4e86\u3002
38.According to the passage, cutting tress to grow more food_______.
A) will widen the gap between the developed and the developing countries.
B)
is
but
a
short-term
relief
to
the
food
problem.
C)
can
hardly
alleviate
the
shortage
of
food.
D) proves to be an effective way out for impoverished nations.
\u6ce8\uff1a\u5bf9\u5e94\u6587\u7ae0\u7b2c\u4e8c\u6bb5\u3002Short-term\u5bf9\u5e94temporarily\uff0crelief\u5bf9\u5e94avoid\u3002
39.Among\u201chumanity's current problems\u201d (Line 6, Para. 3), the chief concern of the
scientists
is
_______.
A)
the
impoverishment
of
developing
countries.
B)
the
explosion
of
the
human
population.
C)
the
reduction
of
biological
diversity.
2
D)
the
effect
of
global
warming.
\u6ce8\uff1a\u7b2c\u4e09\u6bb5\u3002C\u9009\u9879\u4e2dreduction\u5bf9\u5e94rob\uff0cdiversity\u5bf9\u5e94richness\u3002
40.The author's purpose in writing this passage is________.

A) to describe the difficulties in solving humanity's current problems. B) to present the different views on humanity's current problems. C) to analyze the contradiction between countries in dealing with humanity's current problems.

D) to point out that humanity's current problems can only be solved through the
cooperation of nations.
\u6ce8\uff1a\u770b\u6700\u540e\u4e00\u53e5\u8bdd\uff0ccooperation of nations \u5bf9\u5e94coordinated international efforts\u3002
[Page80]

We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety,but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too. In one experiment, for example, behavioralimmun ologist (\u514d\u75ab\u5b66\u5bb6 )Mark Laudenslger, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric shocks to 24 rats. Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could mot. The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock. Laudenslagerfound that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity. What he hasdemonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.

\u6ce8\uff1a1. vulnerable\u6613\u53d7\u4f24\u5bb3\u7684

2. immune defense\u514d\u75ab\u7cfb\u7edf
3. found\u4e4b\u540e\u662f\u8bd5\u9a8c\u544a\u8bc9\u6211\u4eec\u7684\u89c2\u70b9
4.

depress
\u538b
\u6291
\uff0c
de
\u5f80
\u4e0b

Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don't develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats.But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control. Such findings reinforce psychologists' suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression.

\u6ce8\uff1a1. \u770b\u7b2c\u4e00\u53e5\u4e09\u4e2a\u5355\u8bcd\u5c31\u77e5\u9053\u672c\u6bb5\u5185\u5bb9\u548c\u4e0a\u4e00\u6bb5\u76f8\u540c\u3002
2. passive\u88ab\u52a8\u7684
21. Laudenslager's experiment showed that the immune system of those rats who
could
turn
off
the
electricity
______.
A) was strengthened
B)
was
not

affected
C) was altered
D) was weakened

\u6ce8\uff1a\u5b9a\u4f4d\u6587\u7ae0\u7b2c\u4e00\u6bb5found\u4e4b\u540e
22. According to the passage, the experience of helplessness causes rats to______.
A)
try
to
control
unpleasant
stimuli
B)
turn
off
the
electricity
C) become abnormally suspicious
D)
behave
passively
in
controllable
situations
\u6ce8\uff1a\u5b9a\u4f4d\u7b2c\u4e8c\u6bb5But\u4e4b\u540e\u90a3\u53e5\u8bdd
23. The reason why the mice in Ader's experiment avoided saccharin was that______
.
A)
they
disliked
its
taste
B)
it
affected
their
immune
systems
C)
it
led
to
stomach
pains
D) they associated it with stomachaches
22. The first paragraph is mainly about_____.
(A) the teenagers' criticism of their parents

(B) misunderstandings between teenagers and their parents
(C) the dominance of the parents over their children
(D) the teenagers' ability to deal with crises

\u6ce8\uff1a\u6bb5\u843d\u4e3b\u65e8\uff0cB\u548cC\u53ea\u8bf4\u4e86\u4e00\u90e8\u5206\u3002

It is natural for young people to becritical of their parents at times and toblame them for most of the misunderstandings between them. They have always complained, more or less justly, that their parents are out of touch with modern ways; that they are possessive and dominant that they do not trust their children to deal with crises; that they talk too much about certain problems and that they have no sense of humour, at least in parent-child relationships. I think it is true that parents often underestimate their teenage children and also forget how they themselves felt when young. Young people often irritate their parents with their choices in clothes and hairstyles, in entertainers and music. This is not their motive. They feel cut off from the adult world into which they have not yet been accepted. So they create a culture and society of their own. Then, if it turns out that their music or entertainers or vocabulary or clothes or hairstyles irritate their parents, this gives them additional enjoyment. They feel they are superior, at least in a small way, and that they are leaders in style and taste.

\u6ce8\uff1a1. critical\u5439\u6bdb\u6c42\u75b5\u7684\uff0c\u5f88\u91cd\u8981\u7684
40. The main idea of this passage is that_____.
(A) attention must be directed to the improvement of recreative possibilities
(B) better use of greenspace facilities should be made so as to improve the quality of
our life
(C) the urban environment is providing more recreation activities than it did many
years ago
(D) priority must be given to the development of obligatory activities
Greenspace facilities are contributing to an important extent to the quality of

the urban environment. Fortunately it is no longer necessary that every lecture or every book about this subject has to start with the proof of this idea. At present, it is generally accepted, although more as a self-evident statement than on the base of a closely-reasoned scientific proof. The recognition of the importance of greenspaces in the urban environment is a first step on the right way, this does not mean, however, that sufficient details are known about the functions of greenspace in towns and about the way in which the inhabitants are using these spaces. As to this rather complex subject I shall, within the scope of this lecture, enter into one aspect only, namely the recreative function of greenspace facilities.

\u6ce8\uff1aGF\u5bf9\u57ce\u4e61\u73af\u5883\u6709\u91cd\u8981\u7684\u8d21\u732e\u3002
3

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->