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Physics Exam Cheat Sheet

# Physics Exam Cheat Sheet

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03/18/2014

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LIGHT
Speed of light 3.00 x 10^8 ms-1

Distance of sun from earth 1.49 x 10^11m
Speed = distance traveled / time taken
Time taken= distance traveled / speed
Time = 1.49 x 10^8 ms-1 / 3.00 x 10 ^8ms-1

=0.49 x 10^3
=496.667
=8 minutes 27 seconds

Snells law Sini/Sinr = constant
HOW TO DETERMINE THE ANGLE OF REFLECTION

Air = 1.00
Glass = 1.533
Angle the light ray entered the glass at = 30o
Angle of refraction= Sin-1(sin (30) x 1/1.533

HOW TO DETERMINE THE CRITICAL ANGLE

n1=1.53
n2=1
\u04e82 =90o
Critical angle=Sin-1(n2Sin\u04e82/n1)
Critical angle=Sin-1(1Sin90o/1.53)

Refractive index=real depth / apparent depth
Mag=Hi/Ho
Mirror formula = (1/f=1/v +1/u) f is positive for convex lenses and negative for concave

ROYGBIV
Violet bends most towards the normal Red bends the least in a higher optically dense substance
Remember blue bends best red \u2026doesn\u2019t \u2026bend \u2026.good

Dispersion
Splitting white light into the spectrum (all colors)
Modal dispersion
The distortion of light pulses due to the diverging path of the rays coming from the source.
Material dispersion
The spreading of a light pulse due to the dependence of the index of refraction on color; that is, frequency

Transverse waves
Light
Displacement of particles are perpendicular to wave propagation

Longitudinal waves
Sound
Particle displacement is parallel to wave propagation

Polarization
Constructive interference
Destructive interference

Nuclearness
Half Life Equation = A=Ao2 ^((t)/(t1/1))

A=current amount of substance
Ao = original amount of substance
t = time of decay
((t)/(t1/1))=half life

Doses

Absorbed dose - the amount of energy absorbed per kilogram of target material
Absorbed dose (Gy) \u2013Energy absorbed / mass
Absorbed dose is measured in Gray (Gy) = 1 joule/kg

Dose equivalent = Absorbed does + quality factor
Quality factor
alpha particle

20
neutrons 10
beta particles
1
gamma rays
1
x rays

1
glossary
Fuel rods (U-235) full of fissile material fission occurs in these fuel rods releasing the nuclear energy

Control rods

(Cadmium boron) raised and lowered to control how many nuclei are being split every second
Moderator (water, deuterium) slows down neutrons to be absorbed by U-235 which absorbs slow moving neutrons more easily
Coolent (water, high pressure CO2) keeps the temperature constant
Containment vessel (steel & concrete) keeps the radiation from escaping

Different types of reactors
[Pressurized Water Reactors] fission of U 235
[Fast Breeder Reactors] Plutonium 239 is used but creates more plutonium as a waste product very dangerous
[Fusion reactors] stars are giant fusion reactors inside the sun 1/1H + 2/1D\ue0003/2 He + y

Nucleuses are held together by the strong nuclear force
Nucleuses are pushed apart by the Colomb force

Divided by 1.6 x 10^-19
J\ue000eV
J\ue001eV

Multiplied by 1.6 x 10-9
Critical Mass
The smallest amount of fissionable material that will, when formed into a ball sustain an uncontrolled chain reaction
E=mc2 E=energy m= mass c=3.0 x 10^8msspeed of light
WASTES

High level- remnants from fuel rods stored in shielded cooled containers
Medium level \u2013 fuel containers pipes gauges \u2013shielded containers
Low level \u2013protective clothing ,water from showers old plant equipment stored for a short time or just released

Enrichment of uranium-235
The gas centrifuge process has been widely used in Europe for about 30 years to enrich uranium for the commercial nuclear power market. The
process uses a large number of rotating cylinders interconnected to form cascades. The UF6 gas is placed in the cylinder and rotated at a high
speed. The rotation creates a strong centrifugal force that draws more of the heavier gas molecules (containing the U238) toward the wall of the
cylinder, while the lighter gas molecules (containing the U235) tend to collect closer to the center. The stream that is slightly enriched in U235 is
withdrawn and fed into the next higher stage, while the slightly depleted stream is recycled back into the next lower stage. Significantly more
U235 enrichment can be obtained from a single gas centrifuge machine than from a single gaseous diffusion stage.

GENERAL