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History of Metaphysics Class

History of Metaphysics Class

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Published by api-3768897
Metaphysics an attempts to understand what exist
Metaphysics an attempts to understand what exist

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Published by: api-3768897 on Oct 17, 2008
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03/18/2014

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the history of the concept of
the history of the concept of
METAPHYSICS
METAPHYSICS
\u25a0
\u25a0First problem of Western philosophy :
First problem of Western philosophy :
\u201c
\u201corigin of everything
origin of everything\u201d
\u201d : metaphysics is
: metaphysics is
the science which investigates the ultimate ground
the science which investigates the ultimate ground
of absolutely everything.
of absolutely everything.
Hence - metaphysics proposes a
Hence - metaphysics proposes afinal
final answer to a
answer to a
total
totalproblem.
problem.
\u25a0
\u25a0PRESOCRATICS
PRESOCRATICS - shared the common
- shared the common
conviction
that
somehow
conviction
that
somehow
behind

the bewildering multiplicity of appearances the universe is one, bound together in bonds

, bound together in bonds
of unity.
of unity.
The first question they asked was
The first question they asked was:
:
What do all things have in common, that which
What do all things have in common, that which
makes the universe one?
makes the universe one?
What is the common element in all things? What
What is the common element in all things? What
are all things made out of?
are all things made out of?
QUESTION
OF ORIGIN
Heracl
Heracl
focuses on the intelligibility of process or
change
all things in our cosmos are in a constant
pro- cess of flux
logos or law - the immanent stable law
govern-
ing the sequence of changes and
bringing order into change
what makes change intelligible?
breaks through to the ultimate
breaks through to the ultimate
universal
universal
concept and attribute of all things,
concept and attribute of all things,
being
being
itself
itself
radical orientation of
radical orientation ofthought
thoughtto
to
being: only
being: only
being, what is, can be thought
being, what is, can be thought
all ingredients of the
all ingredients of theREAL
REAL, thus
, thus
being itself,
being itself,
is conceived as a concrete single
is conceived as a concrete single
thing.
thing.
hence, the elimination of all
hence, the elimination of all
difference,
difference,
P
Parmenide
armenide
Plato
Two-World
Two-World
View of
View of
Reality
Reality
Sensibl
Sensibl
e
eRealm
Realm
Realm
Realm
of
of
Ideas
Ideas
came to this realization through
came to this realization through
two ways:
two ways:
\u00b2
\u00b2reacting against the Sophists
reacting against the Sophists
and the relativization of truth
and the relativization of truth
(knowledge / morality not pos-
(knowledge / morality not pos-
sible!)
sible!)
\u00b2
\u00b2truths, then, must be immuta-
truths, then, must be immuta-
ble,
ble,
\u00b2
\u00b2if truth exists and is immuta-
if truth exists and is immuta-
ble, it can only be about immuta-
ble, it can only be about immuta-
ble objects.
ble objects.
\u00b2
\u00b2
since truth is about the real,
since truth is about the real,
being
being, it follows that true
, it follows that truebein
g
being
must itself, as the object of truth,
must itself, as the object of truth,
be immutable, ever self-identical
be immutable, ever self-identical
to itself.
to itself.

the world of ideas is the realm of true being. They are truly real bec-ause they remain always self-identical and unchanging. To be is to be im-mutable, always the same, hence the ground of truth.

The world of sense perception therefore, of changing particulars, is not the truly real, but a dim shadowy

image,
participation of it, only half
Heraclitu
Heraclitu
s
s
Parmenides

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