philosophical insight is also to philosophize, by showing that
each of these two things is natural to man we shall on allcounts refute the proposition proposed. In this case1 ourproposition can be proved on both counts, but in the examplesfirst quoted it cannot be proved on all counts or on each oftwo, but only on one or more.zCf.
Schol. in An. PY.,
p. 144 (Creuzer).
3. 17-23. We may also reason as Aristotledoes in his
in which he encourages young men
to philosophize. He says this:
we ought to philosophizewe ought to philosophize, and if we ought not to philosophizewe ought to philosophize; in either case, therefore, we ought
to philosophize. For3 if philosophy exists we ought certainlyto philosophize, because philosophy exists
nd if it does notexist, even so we ought to examine why it does not exist,and in examining this we shall be philosophizing, 'bec'auseexamination is what makes philosophy.'
Aristotle, too, in a hortatory work inwhich he encourages young men to study philosophy, saysthat whether we ought or ought not to philosophize, we oughtto philosophize, so that in either case we ought to philoso-phize. That is, if someone says philosophy does not exist,he will have used arguments destructive of philosophy, butif he has used arguments he is clearly philosophizing (for
philosophy is the mother of arguments). But
he saysphilosophy exists, he again philosophizes; for he
haveused arguments to prove that philosophy exists. In eithercase, then, they philosophize, both he who denies and hewho does not deny that philosophy exists
or each has usedarguments to justify what he says, and if he uses arguments
Reading in R.
with Wallies.Reading in
n R. 57.
he clearly philosophizes; for philosophy is the mother ofarguments.Cf.
3. 16, and CLEM.AL.
3. 25. Seeing the misfortuneof these men, we ought to avoid it and to consider1 thathappiness depends not on having many possessions but on.the condition of the soul. For one would say that it is not
the body which is decked with splendid clothing that ishappy, but that which is healthy and in good condition, evenif it has none of these things; and
the same way, if thesoul has been disciplined, such a soul and such a man are tobe called happy, not a man splendidly decked with outerthings but himself worthless.
is not the horse which hasa golden bit and costly harness, but is itself a poor creature,that we think worth anything; what we praise is the horsethat is in good condition. Besides, when worthless men getabundant possessions, they come to value these more thanthe good of the soul; which is the basest of
a man were inferior to his own servants, he would becomecontemptible; so too those for whom possessions are moreimportant than their own nature must be considered miser-able. This is indeed so; surfeit, as the proverb says, breedsinsolence
possessions without discipline breed folly. For tothose who are ill-disposed in soul neither wealth nor strengthnor beauty is a good
he more lavishly one is endowed withthese conditions, the more grievously and the more often dothey hurt him who possesses them but has not wisdom.'Give not a sword to a boy' means
do not entrust riches tobadmen
All men would admit that wisdom comes from learning:and from seeking the things to which philosophy gives the
key; surely, then, we should sincerely pursue philosophy.
b. 37. 3-22. The things with which we arefurnished for life-the body and bodily things-are provided