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Ch4-Nhiet Luyen Thep

Ch4-Nhiet Luyen Thep

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Published by: api-3801291 on Oct 17, 2008
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05/09/2014

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47
Ch\u2212\u00acng 4
nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n th\u00d0p
4.1. Kh\u00b8i ni\u00d6m v\u00d2 nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n th\u00d0p
4.1.1. S\u00ac l\u2212\u00eec v\u00d2 nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n th\u00d0p
a. \u00a7\u00denh ngh\u00dca: l\u00b5 nung n\u00e3ng th\u00d0p \u00ae\u00d5n nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 x\u00b8c \u00ae\u00denh, gi\u00f7 nhi\u00d6t m\u00e9t th\u00eai gian
th\u00dd ch h\u00eep r\u00e5i sau \u00ae\u00e3 l\u00b5m ngu\u00e9i v\u00edi t\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 x\u00b8c \u00ae\u00denh \u00ae\u00d3 nh\u00cbn \u00ae\u2212\u00eec t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c, do \u00ae\u00e3

t\u00dd nh ch\u00cat theo y\u00aau c\u00c7u.
\u00a7/\u00aei\u00d3m:
- Kh\u00abng l\u00b5m n\u00e3ng ch\u00b6y v\u00b5 bi\u00d5n d\u00b9ng s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m th\u00d0p
- K\u00d5t qu\u00b6 \u00ae\u2212\u00eec \u00ae\u00b8nh gi\u00b8 b\u00bbng bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i c\u00f1a t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c t\u00d5 vi v\u00b5 t\u00dd nh ch\u00cat.

b. C\u00b8c y\u00d5u t\u00e8 \u00ae\u00c6c tr\u2212ng cho nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n
H\u00d7nh 4.1. S\u00ac \u00ae\u00e5 c\u00f1a qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh nhi\u00d6t
c. Ph\u00a9n lo\u00b9i nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n th\u00d0p
luy\u00d6n \u00ae\u00acn gi\u00b6n nh\u00cat
1. Nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n: th\u2212\u00eang g\u00c6p nh\u00cat, ch\u00d8 c\u00e3 t\u00b8c \u00ae\u00e9ng nhi\u00d6t l\u00b5m bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c v\u00b5
t\u00dd nh ch\u00cat g\u00e5m nhi\u00d2u ph\u2212\u00acng ph\u00b8p: \u00f1, th\u2212\u00eang ho\u00b8, t\u00abi, ram.
2. H\u00e3a - nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n: Nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n c\u00e3 k\u00ccm theo thay \u00ae\u00e6i th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n h\u00e3a h\u00e4c \u00eb b\u00d2
m\u00c6t r\u00e5i nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n ti\u00d5p theo \u00ae\u00d3 c\u00b6i thi\u00d6n h\u00acn n\u00f7a t\u00dd nh ch\u00cat c\u00f1a v\u00cbt li\u00d6u: Th\u00cam
\u00ae\u00acn ho\u00c6c \u00aea nguy\u00aan t\u00e8:C,N,..
3. C\u00ac - nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n: l\u00b5 bi\u00d5n d\u00b9ng d\u00ceo th\u00d0p \u00eb tr\u00b9ng th\u00b8i\u03b3 sau \u00ae\u00e3 t\u00abi v\u00b5 ram \u00ae\u00d3
nh\u00cbn \u00ae\u2212\u00eec t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c M nh\u00e1 m\u00den c\u00e3 c\u00ac t\u00dd nh t\u00e6ng h\u00eep cao nh\u00cat, th\u2212\u00eang \u00eb x\u2212\u00ebng c\u00b8n
n\u00e3ng th\u00d0p, luy\u00d6n kim.
4.1.2. T\u00b8c d\u00f4ng c\u00f1a nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi s\u00b6n xu\u00cat c\u00ac kh\u00dd
a. T\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00e9 c\u00f8ng, t\u00dd nh ch\u00e8ng m\u00b5i m\u00dfn v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00d2n c\u00f1a th\u00d0p: ph\u00b8t huy tri\u00d6t \u00ae\u00d3
c\u00b8c ti\u00d2m n\u00a8ng c\u00f1a v\u00cbt li\u00d6u: b\u00d2n, c\u00f8ng, dai\u2026 do \u00ae\u00e3 gi\u00b6m nh\u00d1 k\u00d5t c\u00cau, t\u00a8ng tu\u00e6i
th\u00e4,..
b. C\u00b6i thi\u00d6n t\u00dd nh c\u00abng ngh\u00d6
Ph\u00ef h\u00eep v\u00edi \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n gia c\u00abng: c\u00c7n \u00ae\u00f1 m\u00d2m \u00ae\u00d3 d\u00d4 c\u00bet, c\u00c7n d\u00ceo \u00ae\u00d3 d\u00d4 bi\u00d5n
d\u00b9ng,\u2026
c. Nhi\u00d6t luy\u00d6n trong nh\u00b5 m\u00b8y c\u00ac kh\u00dd

- N\u00c6ng nh\u00e4c, \u00ae\u00e9c\u2192 c\u00ac kh\u00dd h\u00e3a, t\u00f9 \u00ae\u00e9ng h\u00e3a, ch\u00e8ng n\u00e3ng, \u00ae\u00e9c
- Ph\u00b6i \u00ae\u2212\u00eec chuy\u00aan m\u00abn h\u00e3a cao\u2192 b\u00b6o \u00ae\u00b6m ch\u00cat l\u2212\u00eeng s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m v\u00b5 n\u00a8ng su\u00cat
- Ti\u00aau ph\u00dd nhi\u00d2u n\u00a8ng l\u2212\u00eeng\u2192 ph\u2212\u00acng \u00b8n ti\u00d5t ki\u00d6m \u00ae\u2212\u00eec n\u00a8ng l\u2212\u00eeng

th\u00eai gian
nhi\u00d6t\u00ae\u00e9
\u03c4gnVng
T
Ba th\u00abng s\u00e8 quan tr\u00e4ng nh\u00cat (h\u00d7nh 4.1):
- Nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 nung n\u00e3ng
o
n
T:
-Th\u00eai gian gi\u00f7 nhi\u00d6t tgn:
- T\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 ngu\u00e9i Vngu\u00e9i sau khi gi\u00f7 nhi\u00d6t.
C\u00b8c ch\u00d8 ti\u00aau \u00ae\u00b8nh gi\u00b8 k\u00d5t qu\u00b6:
+ T\u00e6 ch\u00f8c t\u00d5 vi bao g\u00e5m c\u00cau t\u00b9o pha, k\u00dd ch th\u2212\u00edc

h\u00b9t, chi\u00d2u s\u00a9u l\u00edp h\u00e3a b\u00d2n... l\u00b5 ch\u00d8 ti\u00aau g\u00e8c, c\u00ac b\u00b6n
nh\u00cat
+ \u00a7\u00e9 c\u00f8ng, \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00d2n, \u00ae\u00e9 d\u00ceo, \u00ae\u00e9 dai
+ \u00a7\u00e9 cong v\u00aanh, bi\u00d5n d\u00b9ng.

48
- L\u00b5 kh\u00a9u sau c\u00efng, th\u2212\u00eang kh\u00abng th\u00d3 b\u00e1 qua, do \u00ae\u00e3 quy\u00d5t \u00ae\u00denh ti\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e9 chung,
ch\u00cat l\u2212\u00eeng v\u00b5 gi\u00b8 th\u00b5nh s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m c\u00f1a c\u00b6 x\u00dd nghi\u00d6p.

4.2. C\u00b8c t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c \u00ae\u00b9t \u00ae\u2212\u00eec khi nung n\u00e3ng v\u00b5 l\u00b5m ngu\u00e9i th\u00d0p
4.2.1. C\u00b8c chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n x\u00b6y ra khi nung n\u00e3ng th\u00d0p - S\u00f9 t\u00b9o th\u00b5nh austenit
a. C\u00ac s\u00eb x\u00b8c \u00ae\u00denh chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n khi nung

D\u00f9a v\u00b5o gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 pha Fe - C, h\u00d7nh 4.2: \u00eb nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 th\u2212\u00eang m\u00e4i th\u00d0p \u00ae\u00d2u c\u00cau t\u00b9o b\u00ebi
hai pha c\u00ac b\u00b6n: F v\u00b5 X\u00aa (trong \u00ae\u00e3 P =[F+X\u00aa]).
- Th\u00d0p c\u00efng t\u00dd ch: c\u00e3 t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c \u00ae\u00acn gi\u00b6n l\u00b5 P
- Th\u00d0p tr\u2212\u00edc v\u00b5 sau c\u00efng t\u00dd ch: P+F v\u00b5 P+X\u00aaII
Khi nung n\u00e3ng: + Khi T< A1\u2192ch\u2212a c\u00e3 chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n g\u00d7
+ Khi T= Ac1, P\u2192 \u03b3 theo ph\u00b6n \u00f8ng:Th\u00d0p CT:
[Fe\u03b1 + X\u00aa]0,80%C\u2192 \u03b30,80%C
K\u00dd ch th\u2212\u00edc h\u00b9t austenit:
H\u00d7nh 4.2. Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 pha Fe-C
\u00fdngh\u00dca:
(ph\u00c7n th\u00d0p)
H\u00b9t\u03b3 c\u00b5ng nh\u00e1\u2192 M (ho\u00c6c t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c kh\u00b8c) c\u00e3
\u00ae\u00e9 d\u00ceo, dai cao h\u00acn

C\u00ac ch\u00d5 chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n: P\u2192 \u03b3: c\u00f2ng t\u00b9o v\u00b5 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n m\u00c7m nh\u2212 k\u00d5t tinh (h\u00d7nh 4.4), nh\u2212ng do b\u00d2 m\u00c6t ph\u00a9n chia gi\u00f7a F-X\u00aa r\u00cat nhi\u00d2u n\u00aan s\u00e8 m\u00c7m r\u00cat l\u00edn\u2192 h\u00b9t\u03b3 ban \u00ae\u00c7u r\u00cat nh\u00e1 m\u00den (< c\u00cap 8-10, h\u00d7nh 4.4d)

chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n peclit\u2192 austenit bao gi\u00ea c\u00f2ng
l\u00b5m nh\u00e1 h\u00b9t th\u00d0p, ph\u00b6i t\u00cbn d\u00f4ng
H\u00d7nh 4.3. Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n
\u00ae\u00bcng nhi\u00d6t P\u2192 \u03b3 c\u00f1a th\u00d0p c\u00efng
t\u00dd ch
a)
b)
c)
d)

Th\u00d0p TCT v\u00b5 SCT: F v\u00b5 X\u00aaII kh\u00abng thay \u00ae\u00e6i
+ Khi T> Ac1: F v\u00b5 X\u00aaII tan v\u00b5o\u03b3 nh\u2212ng kh\u00abng ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n
+ Khi T> Ac3 v\u00b5 Acm: F v\u00b5 X\u00aaII tan ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n v\u00b5o\u03b3

Tr\u00aan \u00ae\u2212\u00eang GSE m\u00e4i th\u00d0p \u00ae\u00d2u c\u00e3 t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c\u03b3
b. \u00a7\u00c6c \u00aei\u00d3m c\u00f1a chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n peclit th\u00b5nh austenit
Nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 & th\u00eai gian chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n: (h\u00d7nh 4.3)

Vnung c\u00b5ng l\u00edn th\u00d7 T chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n c\u00b5ng cao
Tnung c\u00b5ng cao, kho\u00b6ng th\u00eai gian chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n c\u00b5ng
ng\u00ben

- T\u00e8c \u00ae\u00e9 nung V2 > V1, th\u00d7 nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 b\u00bet \u00ae\u00c7u v\u00b5 k\u00d5t th\u00f3c chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n \u00eb c\u00b5ng cao v\u00b5 th\u00eai gian chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n c\u00b5ng ng\u00ben.

%C
00,5
500
nhi\u00d6t\u00ae\u00e9,
oC
1,0 1,52,0
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
\u03b3
\u03b3+\u03b1
\u03b3+X\u00aaII
G
E
S
P
0,8
A3
Acm
P+X\u00aaII
P+F
A1
a1
\u03c4, ph\u00f3 t
25
0
5
10
20
15
700
750
800
nhi\u00d6t\u00ae\u00e9,
oC
A1
V1
V2
b1
b2
a2
b\u00be t \u00ae \u00c7 u chuy\u00d3 n bi\u00d5 n
k\u00d5 t th\u00f3 c chuy\u00d3 n bi\u00d5 n
H\u00d7 nh 4.4. Qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh t\u00b9o m\u00c7m v\u00b5
ph\u00b8t
t i\u00d3
\u00c7
t
it t\u00f5
lit (t\u00ca
)
49
\u00a7\u00e9 h\u00b9t austenit:
- peclit ban \u00ae\u00c7u: c\u00b5ng m\u00den\u2192 \u03b3 nh\u00e1
-Vnung c\u00b5ng l\u00edn\u2192 h\u00b9t\u03b3 c\u00b5ng nh\u00e1
- T&\u03c4 gi\u00f7 nhi\u00d6t l\u00edn th\u00d7 h\u00b9t l\u00edn
- Theo b\u00b6n ch\u00cat th\u00d0p: b\u00b6n ch\u00cat
h\u00b9t l\u00edn v\u00b5 h\u00b9t nh\u00e1 (h\u00d7nh 4.5).

Th\u00d0p b\u00b6n ch\u00cat h\u00b9t nh\u00e1: th\u00d0p \u00ae\u2212\u00eec kh\u00f6 \u00abxy tri\u00d6t \u00ae\u00d3 b\u00bbng Al, th\u00d0p h\u00eep kim Ti, Mo, V, Zr, Nb,... d\u00d4 t\u00b9o cacbit ng\u00a8n c\u00b6n ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n h\u00b9t.

Mn v\u00b5 P l\u00b5m h\u00b9t ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n
nhanh.
4.2.2. M\u00f4c \u00ae\u00dd ch c\u00f1a gi\u00f7 nhi\u00d6t
- L\u00b5m \u00ae\u00d2u nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 tr\u00aan ti\u00d5t di\u00d6n
- \u00ae\u00d3 chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n x\u00b6y ra ho\u00b5n
to\u00b5n
- L\u00b5m \u00ae\u00e5ng \u00ae\u00d2u % c\u00f1a\u03b3
H\u00d7nh 4.5. S\u00ac \u00ae\u00e5 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n h\u00b9t austenit
I- di truy\u00d2n h\u00b9t nh\u00e1, II- di truy\u00d2n h\u00b9t l\u00edn
4.2.3. C\u00b8c chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n khi l\u00b5m ngu\u00e9i\u03b3
a. Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00bcng nhi\u00d6t austenit qu\u00b8 ngu\u00e9i (gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 T-T-T) c\u00f1a
th\u00d0p c\u00efng t\u00dd ch
H\u00d7nh 4.6.Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 T- T- T c\u00f1a th\u00d0p c\u00efng t\u00dd ch

- Gi\u00f7\u03b3 qu\u00b8 ngu\u00e9i \u00eb s\u00b8t A1: (T~ 700oC,\u2206T0 nh\u00e1, ~25oC): Peclit (t\u00cam), HRC10\u00f715
+ (T~ 650oC,\u2206T0 ~ 75oC): Xoocbit t\u00abi, HRC 25\u00f7 35
+ T ~ \u00ae\u00d8nh l\u00e5i ch\u00f7 \u201cC\u201c (kho\u00b6ng 500\u00f7 600oC): Tr\u00abxtit, HRC 40.

%C
00,5
500
nhi\u00d6t\u00ae\u00e9,
oC
1,0 1,52,0
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
\u03b3
\u03b3+\u03b1
G
E
S
P
0,8
A3
Acm
A1
727
\u00ae\u00e9 l\u00edn930
800
I
II
peclitauste
nit
b)
a)
\u03b3
+F+Xe
A1
M\u00ae ~220oC
MK~ -50oC
mactenxit+
\u03b3
d\u2212
austenit
h\u00e7 n h\u00ee p
F+X\u00aa
peclit
xoocbit
tr\u00ab xtit
bainit
austenit
q
u\u00b8
ngu\u00e9 i
nhi\u00d6t\u00ae\u00e9,
oC400
200
600
800
0
1
10
102
103
104
th\u00ea i gian, s
Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 T
Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 T
Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 T
Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 T-
--
-T
TT
T-
--
-T:
T:
T:
T:
Nhi\u00d6t \u00ae\u00e9 (T) - th\u00eai gian (T) v\u00b5 chuy\u00d3n
bi\u00d5n (T)
V\u00d7 c\u00e3 d\u00b9ng ch\u00f7 "C")\u2192 \u00ae\u2212\u00eang cong ch\u00f7
\u201cC\u201d.

Khi\u03b3 b\u00de ngu\u00e9i (t\u00f8c th\u00eai) d\u2212\u00edi 727oC n\u00e3 ch\u2212a chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n ngay \u00ae\u2212\u00eec g\u00e4i l\u00b5\u03b3 qu\u00b8 ngu\u00e9i, kh\u00abng \u00e6n \u00ae\u00denh. Gi\u00b6n \u00ae\u00e5 c\u00e3 5 v\u00efng: - tr\u00aan 727oC l\u00b5 khu v\u00f9c t\u00e5n t\u00b9i c\u00f1a\u03b3 \u00e6n \u00ae\u00denh

- b\u00aan tr\u00b8i ch\u00f7 "C" \u00ae\u00c7u ti\u00aan - v\u00efng\u03b3 qu\u00b8
ngu\u00e9i
- gi\u00f7a hai ch\u00f7 "C" -\u03b3 \u00aeang chuy\u00d3n bi\u00d5n

(t\u00e5n t\u00b9i c\u00b6 ba pha\u03b3, F v\u00b5 Xe)
- b\u00aan ph\u00b6i ch\u00f7 "C" th\u00f8 hai - c\u00b8c s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m
ph\u00a9n h\u00e3a \u00ae\u00bcng nhi\u00d6t\u03b3 qu\u00b8 ngu\u00e9i l\u00b5 h\u00e7n
h\u00eep: F - X\u00aa v\u00ed i m\u00f8 c \u00ae \u00e9 nh\u00e1 m\u00den kh\u00b8 c nhau

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