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Planck's Cons. Solar Cell

# Planck's Cons. Solar Cell

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07/23/2013

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- 1 -
Experiment no. – 10
Planck’s constant ‘
h
’ solar cell
Object:
Determination of
Planck’s constant ‘h’
by measuring radiation in a fixedspectral range.
Apparatus used:
The complete experimental arrangement as shown in figure (1) consistsof filament bulb, its power supply (0-12 V d.c.) , A solar cell fitted on mini optical bench,one Ammeter ( 0- 2 A) and one voltmeter (0-10 V) to read filament current and voltage,one digital D.C. Microammeter (0-200 μA.).
Theory:
For a black body at temperature ‘T’ the total radiations as well as the spectraldistribution for this radiation are functions of temperature T alone. The spectraldistribution involves Planck’s constant ‘h’.
λ λ λ π λ
λ
khchc E
15
1)exp(8
=
………………….1Working with visible light and temperature upto 2500
o
K , we have,
khc
λ
>>1.Hence equation (1) simplifies to,
λ λ λ π λ
λ
kT hchc E
)exp(8
5
=
………………….2Figure 1(b)
CurrentControlFilamentFilament BulbSolar Cell
Figure 1(a)
Power Supply

AFilamentCurrentVFilamentVoltage

- 2 -
If the radiation is received through a filter on a photocell and galvanometer response θ ismeasured, we get:
∫
=
5
8
λ π θ
λ
BhcA
λ λ
khc
)exp(
………………….3Where A is a factor depending on geometry of the arrangement and sensitivity of thegalvanometer and B
λ
is a function of λ which includes (i) transmission characteristics of the filter and (ii) wavelength wise response of the photocell. The integral has to cover allrange of λ for which B
λ
is non zero.If we have filter, which has, transmission characteristics schematically represented byfigure 2 (a) and a photovoltaic cell with response schematically represented in figure 2 (b)then the B
λ
function is given by products of ordinates T and R plotted against respectivevalues figure 2 (c).However, if the filter has a narrow transmission band, one may reduce equation (3) to ,
0
8
λ
π θ
hcAC
=
0
)exp(
λ λ
Λ
khc
………………….4Where λ
0
is some effective mean wavelength , Δ λ
0
is the effective band width and C
λ0
isa constant depending on λ
0
.At two different temperatures , we get
=
)11(exp
2101 2
hc
λ θ θ
………………….5
5000 6000 7000λ (Α˚)
T
5000 6000 7000λ (Α˚)
R
5000 6000λ (Α˚)
B
λ
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 2

- 3 -
Where the constant A, B
λ
and Δ λ
0
all cancel out due to the simplifying assumptionsmade to go from (3) to (4)We note that unless the transmission band is narrow, the theory would not hold, further effective λ
0
is not just the center of transmission band of the filter, but it will be seriouslyeffected by response curve of the photocell. In the photo voltaic cell the shift usually will be towards longer wavelength. Even more seriously the term
)exp(
khc
λ
increasesrapidly with increasing λ. For T = 2000
0
K, as we pass from λ = 5000
0
A to λ = 7000
0
A.This exponential term increases from exp(-3) to exp.(-2). This fact will also placeeffective λ
0
on the higher side of the mean transmission wavelength of the filter.With in these limitation equation (5) gives2.303
θ
10
log
=
hc
1
0
λ
………………….6Thus log θ vs 1/T graph should be a straight line from whose slope we may deduce h.
)1()(log.303.2
100
ch
ΛΛ=
θ λ
………………….7The experimental task reduces to measure θ for different temperatures of the filamentkeeping the geometry and λ
0
constant.
METHOD:-(a) To determine the value of R
g
and Rt/R
g
with the V-I characteristics of Bulb.
1.
To find R
g
the resistance of the filament bulb when it just starts glowing
: Connectthe set-up with the mains and switched it ON. Apply filament current by the power supply control knob marked CONTROL on the panel such that the filament just startsglowing. Note the corresponding filament current and voltage and record thesereadings in table-I as shown below. Take at least three readings to the get the better value of R
g
.
Refer fig. 3TABLE: - I For Rg, the resistance of the filament when it just starts glowing
.
S.No.FilamentCurrentI Amp.FilamentVoltageV VoltR
g
OhmAverageR
g
1.2.3.2.
To find Rt/R
g
from the V-I characteristics of bulb
: Further increase the filamentcurrent in steps of 0.1 amp. and note the corresponding values of filament voltage for each value of filament current. Record all these readings in table-II as shown below.