the signal control level when it is applied to systems that require to track step references. Two practical examples are provided. In the first one, the task is to control the position of a DC motor with a full-state feedback controller. The second example applies the hidden reference method to a self-guided vehicle controlled by optimal control, thus showing that this method eliminates the chattering in the helm s signal control.Copyright \u00a9 2004 IFAC.
The behavior of a system s response to a control action depends on the capacity of the equipment that emits the signal control. This capacity may refer to physical variables such as voltage, current, power, angle, force, and so on, but in order to generalize, these variables will be known plainly as energy .
It is clear that if a system is required to follow a step reference, a quick and exact response will request higher energy consumption. However, this unnecessary energy demand can be reduced by replacing the step reference with a special trajectory from the initial point to the final point. This trajectory can be described as a straight line or a
function, and the like, thus converting the step reference problem into a trajectory tracking problem. The key is not to follow this new trajectory but to arrive to the destination with an acceptable behavior
This paper suggests a function based on the own system behavior. This function will allow the system to achieve the desired trajectory and to reduce energy consumption not only in picks but also in the
To obtain a trajectory from an initial point X(to) to a final point X(tf), the mathematical model of the system is simulated by performing iterations with computer software. Each iteration yields a new point that becomes part of the desired trajectory, thus making up a reference that varies in each instant of
As shown, this function has two stages. First, when x(t) is less than or equal to certain percentage ( ) of the desired value, the desired trajectory follows the values given by the simulation process, but at the same time a certain percentage ( ) of the current error between the real state and the desired value is added to the signal control. Second, when x(t) is greater than certain percentage of the desired value,
The simulated controller s gains or weights that make it possible to generate the desired trajectory could or could not be similar to those of the real controller. Nevertheless, to allow for comparability, this paper assumes similar values. Those weights are expected to search for the best possible response (either amped,
critically-damped). Furthermore, it is crucial to highlight that this response must not be over-damped; otherwise,
In this section our goal is to take the angular position of a DC motor from an initial point to a final reference. To perform this task, a continuous current
-Motor armature constant (Kt): 0.0573
-Electric resistance (Ra): 1.1 ohm
-The rotor and shaft are assumed to be rigid
First, the system was simulated in order to reach a step reference (Fig.2), and then to follow different desired trajectories. The first function used was a straight line with gradient conditioned to a final time of 0.1 sec., after this point in time, the trajectory becomes similar to the desired angular position (Fig.3). The second function was a variant of the cosine function: (-cos + 1),(Fig.4). The third function was a wave sine (Fig.5). As well as the previous one, this function uses a frequency of 2.5 Hz, and it is substituted by the desired angular position when it reaches its maximum amplitude (at /2). Finally the
It is necessary to point out that if in any of the three cases: straight line, sine, or cosine, a greater time were used for the reference before setting it constant, a greater settling time would have been obtained. This would have not been feasible, since we wanted
Fig. 6: Response to a HIDDEN REFERENCE FUNCTION. (a) Angular position (solid), Desired trajectory (dashed). (b) Signal control
In this section the objective is to eliminate the oscillatory behavior or chattering in signal control. This is achieved by applying the proposed method called hidden reference .
The time required to arrive to the destination can be reduced by modifying the signal control. When the value of the actual position is smaller than the value of the desired position, the function (t) is added to the signal control. This function (5) reduces the
Suppose that a vehicle with longitude (L) 0.5 m that moves with a constant speed (v) of 3 m /s is located in the XY plane and goes toward a desired position in the Y axis. The vehicle s helm has a maximum angle
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?