Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
7Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Energy Saving

Energy Saving

Ratings: (0)|Views: 55|Likes:
Published by api-27164352
ENERGY-SAVING WITH THE HIDDEN REFERENCE TRACKING METHOD
ENERGY-SAVING WITH THE HIDDEN REFERENCE TRACKING METHOD

More info:

Published by: api-27164352 on Oct 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

Energy-Savingwiththe HiddenReference tracking method
XI Latin-American Congress of Automatic Control , IFAC, Cuba, May/2004
1
Xd
t
Td
Xd
t
x
t
XH
t
x
Xd
t
Td
Xd
t
x
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
ENERGY-SAVING WITH THE HIDDEN REFERENCE TRACKING METHOD
HENRY A. MENDIBURU D\u00cdAZ
ElectronicEngineer, Masterin Control and Automatization
henrymendiburu@yahoo.es
Abstract:This paper presents a new method, the hidden reference , which reduces

the signal control level when it is applied to systems that require to track step references. Two practical examples are provided. In the first one, the task is to control the position of a DC motor with a full-state feedback controller. The second example applies the hidden reference method to a self-guided vehicle controlled by optimal control, thus showing that this method eliminates the chattering in the helm s signal control.Copyright \u00a9 2004 IFAC.

Keywords: energy, motor, simulation, reference, step, tracking, trajectories, vehicle.
1. INTRODUCTION

The behavior of a system s response to a control action depends on the capacity of the equipment that emits the signal control. This capacity may refer to physical variables such as voltage, current, power, angle, force, and so on, but in order to generalize, these variables will be known plainly as energy .

It is clear that if a system is required to follow a step reference, a quick and exact response will request higher energy consumption. However, this unnecessary energy demand can be reduced by replacing the step reference with a special trajectory from the initial point to the final point. This trajectory can be described as a straight line or a

function, such as a sine, a cosine, an exponential

function, and the like, thus converting the step reference problem into a trajectory tracking problem. The key is not to follow this new trajectory but to arrive to the destination with an acceptable behavior

and within a reasonably time.

This paper suggests a function based on the own system behavior. This function will allow the system to achieve the desired trajectory and to reduce energy consumption not only in picks but also in the

cumulative total.
2.THE HIDDEN REFERENCE METHOD

To obtain a trajectory from an initial point X(to) to a final point X(tf), the mathematical model of the system is simulated by performing iterations with computer software. Each iteration yields a new point that becomes part of the desired trajectory, thus making up a reference that varies in each instant of

time. At the same time, the reference describes the
natural route that the system would follow.
The key of this method is the following function:
(1)
Where:
-x(t), isthe state to be controlled
- XH(t), is the value of the state X given by the
simulation process
-Xd, is the desired value of the state X
-Td(t), is the desired trajectory
-,, design parameters (values between 0 and 1)

As shown, this function has two stages. First, when x(t) is less than or equal to certain percentage ( ) of the desired value, the desired trajectory follows the values given by the simulation process, but at the same time a certain percentage ( ) of the current error between the real state and the desired value is added to the signal control. Second, when x(t) is greater than certain percentage of the desired value,

the desired trajectory is equal to the desired value.

The simulated controller s gains or weights that make it possible to generate the desired trajectory could or could not be similar to those of the real controller. Nevertheless, to allow for comparability, this paper assumes similar values. Those weights are expected to search for the best possible response (either amped,

sub-damped,
or

critically-damped). Furthermore, it is crucial to highlight that this response must not be over-damped; otherwise,

expected results could not be obtained.
Ms. Ing. Henry A. Mendiburu D\u00edaz
XI Latin-American Congress of Automatic Control , IFAC, Cuba, May/2004
2
Ra
La
i(t)
J
b
,
V(t)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time(sec)
rad
Angular Position
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
02468
10
time(sec)
volts
Signal Control (Voltage)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time(sec)
rad
Angular Position
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
02468
10
time(sec)
volts
Signal Control (Voltage)
3. APPLYING THE HIDDEN REFERENCE
METHOD
3.1. Position Control of a DC Motor

In this section our goal is to take the angular position of a DC motor from an initial point to a final reference. To perform this task, a continuous current

motor of 40v and 100w was chosen (Fig.1).
The motor is subject to the following technical
specifications:
- Moment of inertia of the rotor (J): 4.326x10-5
Kg.m2/s2
-Motorfriction/ damping ratio (b): 0.1 N.m/s
- Electromotive force constant (Ka): 0.05665
N.m/Amp

-Motor armature constant (Kt): 0.0573
-Electric resistance (Ra): 1.1 ohm
-Electricinductance(La): 0.0001H
-The rotor and shaft are assumed to be rigid

The mathematical model of the motor is subject to
the equations (2) and (3):
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
t
Ka
dtt
di
La
t
i
Ra
t
V
(2)
)
(
)
(
)
(
t
i
Kt
t
b
t
J
(3)
Where V(t) is the source voltage (volts), i(t) is the
armature current(Amp),
)
(t is the angular position
(rad),
)
(t is the angular speed (rad/sec), and
)
(tis
the angular acceleration (rad/sec2).
The state-space form of the system is given by the
equation (4):
V
La
i
La
Ra
La
Ka
J
Kt
J
b
i
1
00
00
0
1
0
(4)

First, the system was simulated in order to reach a step reference (Fig.2), and then to follow different desired trajectories. The first function used was a straight line with gradient conditioned to a final time of 0.1 sec., after this point in time, the trajectory becomes similar to the desired angular position (Fig.3). The second function was a variant of the cosine function: (-cos + 1),(Fig.4). The third function was a wave sine (Fig.5). As well as the previous one, this function uses a frequency of 2.5 Hz, and it is substituted by the desired angular position when it reaches its maximum amplitude (at /2). Finally the

hidden trajectory is used with parameters =0.35 y
=0.96 (Fig.6). The simulation considered an initial
condition of [0.01,0,0], and a desired angular position
of 1 rad., with a sampling interval of 0.005 sec.
Fig.1 Scheme of the DC motor

It is necessary to point out that if in any of the three cases: straight line, sine, or cosine, a greater time were used for the reference before setting it constant, a greater settling time would have been obtained. This would have not been feasible, since we wanted

to compare similar answers among all cases.
A full-state feedback controller with gains [0.0003,
0.3390,-1.3267] was used. The results are shown in
the following figures:
(a)
(b)
Fig. 2: Response to a STEP FUNCTION reference.
(a) Angular position (solid), Desired trajectory
(dashed). (b) Signal control or armature voltage.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 3: Response to a STRAIGHT LINE FUNCTION
reference. (a) Angular position (solid), Desired
trajectory (dashed). (b) Signal control or
armature voltage.
Energy-Savingwiththe HiddenReference tracking method
XI Latin-American Congress of Automatic Control , IFAC, Cuba, May/2004
3
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time(sec)
rad
Angular Position
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
02468
10
time(sec)
volts
Signal Control (Voltage)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time(sec)
rad
Angular Position
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
02468
10
time(sec)
volts
Signal Control (Voltage)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time(sec)
rad
Angular Position
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
02468
10
time(sec)
volts
Signal Control (Voltage)
(a)
(b)
Fig. 4: Response to a COSINE FUNCTION
reference.(a) Angular position (solid), Desired
trajectory (dashed). (b) Signal control or
armaturevoltage.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 5: Response to a SINE FUNCTION reference.
(a) Angular position (solid), Desired trajectory
(dashed). (b) Signal control or armature voltage.
(a)
(b)

Fig. 6: Response to a HIDDEN REFERENCE FUNCTION. (a) Angular position (solid), Desired trajectory (dashed). (b) Signal control

or armature voltage.
Table 1: Summary of results: DC Motor(*)
Vmax
Pmax
Pacc
Ts
Step
8.25
60.24
1977
0.62
Line
7.86
54.58
1862
0.67
Sine
9.97
54.11
1897
0.66
Cosine
8.01
56.64
1900
0.68
Hidden
5.42
25.91
1388
0.67
(*)Vmax maximum voltage (volt)
Pmaxmaximum power (watts)
Paccaccumulated power (watts)
Tssettling time (sec.)
3.2. Location control of a self-guided vehicle

In this section the objective is to eliminate the oscillatory behavior or chattering in signal control. This is achieved by applying the proposed method called hidden reference .

The time required to arrive to the destination can be reduced by modifying the signal control. When the value of the actual position is smaller than the value of the desired position, the function (t) is added to the signal control. This function (5) reduces the

settling time of the system.
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
t
YH
t
Y
t
Y
t
YH
t
(5)
Where:
-YH(t), is the simulated position (m)
-Y(t), is the real position (m)
-(t), is the control function (radians)

Suppose that a vehicle with longitude (L) 0.5 m that moves with a constant speed (v) of 3 m /s is located in the XY plane and goes toward a desired position in the Y axis. The vehicle s helm has a maximum angle

of 30\u00ba (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7: Scheme of a self-guided vehicle
Y
X

Activity (7)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
azfie liked this
daodoquang liked this
rock0 liked this
muru72 liked this
SSAAJJIIVV liked this
janitha liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->