Recycling of wastewaters of textile dyeing industries
using advanced treatment technology and
cost analysis\u2014Case studies
Textile dyeing industries in Tirupur and Karur of Tamil Nadu (India) usually discharge ef\ufb02uents ranging between 80 and 200 m3/t of production. Dyeing is performed either by conventional winch process or by advanced soft \ufb02ow reactor process. Hypochlorite, the commonly used bleaching chem- ical is being gradually phased out by alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution that generates less ef\ufb02uent and fewer solids in the ef\ufb02uents. Coloring of yarn/cloth takes place in the presence of high concentra- tion of sodium chloride or sodium sulphate (25\u201375 kg/m3) in dye solutions. Dye bath wastewaters and wash waters are the process ef\ufb02uents of dyeing industry which are collected separately or together and follow the advanced treatment for maximum recycling of recovered waters.
Dye bath water after treating by sand and nano\ufb01ltrations (NF), the permeate is used in process for dye bath preparation and the reject of about 20\u201330% is sent to multi effect evaporator (MEE)/solar evaporation pond (SEP). Wash waters treated using a sequence of physicochemical and biological unit processes are passed into two stages reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems and then the permeate is reused in the processes. The rejects about 15\u201320%of the inlet volume is subject either to nano\ufb01ltration for salt recovery or sent to evaporators. The \ufb01nal rejects from nano\ufb01lter systems is directed to multi effect evaporator system where condensed waters are recovered. The removal of total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride and sodium are in the range of 80\u201397%, 91\u201397%,
APHA, American Public Health Association; RO, reverse osmosis; NF, nano\ufb01ltration; MEE, multiple effect evaporators; TDS, total dissolved solids; BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand; SAR, sodium absorption ratio; TH, total hardness
76\u201397% and 96%, respectively. Multiple effect evaporators out \ufb02ows of about 2\u20133% of the ef\ufb02uent volume are allowed for solar evaporation and the solids are disposed off. The cost of operation of MEE is about INR 400/m3of the rejects. The cost of water recovery is about INR 60\u201380/m3including commissioning and maintenance whereas price of raw-water in Tirupur is about INR 100/m3.
Next to food the second basic needs of man \u2018cloth\u2019 is supplied by processing of natural and synthetic \ufb01bers in the industries called textiles. Increased population and modernized civilization trend gave rise to blooming of textile sectors in India. An estimate shows that textiles account for 14% of India\u2019s industrial production and around 27% of its export earnings. India is the second largest producer of cotton yarn and silk and third largest producer of cotton and cellulose \ufb01ber (Report of Business India, 2004). The total production of yarn during the year 2003\u20132004 was 3051 kt (Annual Report of Ministry of Textiles,
industries in India. Majority are concentrated at Tirupur and Karur in Tamil Nadu, Ludiyana in Punjab and Surat in Gujarat. The processes followed in textile industries are spinning of \ufb01ber to yarn, sizing to improve stiffness, scouring, kiering and desizing to remove excess sizing materials, bleaching to remove pectin and wax from the yarn and fabric and coloring and printing to provide desired color and design to the cloth. Dyeing is a combined process of bleaching and coloring, which generates voluminous quantities of wastewaters and in turn causes environmental degradation. The ef\ufb02uents consist of high TDS, sodium, chloride, sulphate, hardness and carcinogenic dye ingredients. High BOD ef\ufb02uents are generated from the sizing and desizing processes and treated by conventional anaerobic and aerobic biological methods (Tchobanoglous and Burton, 1995).
Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu is well known for cotton production and also called as Manchester of Southern India. Tirupur, one of the towns in Coimbatore District is located at the bank of river Noyyal, a tributary to river Cauvery. The quality of Noyyal river water and climatic condition of Tirupur has been ideal for dyeing operation of yarn and fabric since long time. Presently there are 712 dyeing and bleaching industries in Tirupur that generate 87,000 m3/d of wastewater. Out of this a total of 281 industries are attached with common ef\ufb02uent treatment plants (CETP) and others are having their individual ef\ufb02uent treatment plants. Presently adopted technology is able to remove the color and other organic impurities to the stipulated standards but failed to arrest the inorganic contaminants. Continuance of ef\ufb02uent discharges has caused gross damages to the nearby aquatic systems receiving body like Orathupalayam dam located at the down stream of river Noyyal and as such the water quality has become un\ufb01t for irrigation. The reservoir water\u2019s TDS, chloride and sodium were reported as high as 5054, 2869 and 1620 mg/L, respectively (Central Pollution
substances capable of inducing DNA damage in human cells. One more town Karur located at the bank of river Amaravathy, another tributary to river Cauvery is also concentrated with 600 bleaching and dyeing industries. Advanced treatment technologies are imperative to protect the water resources in these areas.
wet processing industries. In view of the above impacts of the dyeing ef\ufb02uents on the environment, the industries in Tirupur and Karur are also forced to adopt technology leading towards zero discharge systems. There are 20 dyeing industries that have already installed ef\ufb02uent treatment technologies with advanced techniques and attained zero discharge. Four industries adopted such technologies are extensively studied and the results are discussed in this paper.
Four dyeing units namely M/s. Sivasakthi Textile Processors, Tirupur, M/s. Rennaisance Creations Processing Division, Tirupur, M/s. Leeds Spinning Mills (P) Ltd., Tirupur and M/s. Karur Amaravathy Textiles Industry, Karur were visited and information on manu- facturing process, production status and wastewater quantity were collected. Waste water samples from the dye bath collection tank and wash water collection tanks, intermediate points and at the outlets of ef\ufb02uent treatment plants were collected and analyzed at mobile as well as stationary laboratory using standard methods. Eight hourly composite and grab samples were collected for the \ufb01rst two units and other two units, respectively. The samples were preserved and analyzed as per the standard methods (APHA, 1995; CPCB, 2001).
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