Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Shape From Shading a Survey

Shape From Shading a Survey

Ratings: (0)|Views: 79 |Likes:
Published by Jamie Allen

More info:

Published by: Jamie Allen on Oct 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/25/2011

pdf

text

original

 
ShapefromShading:ASurvey   
  
RuoZhang,Ping-SingTsai,JamesEdwinCryerandMubarakShaComputerVisionLaSchoolofComputerSciencUniversityofCentralFloridOrlando,FL3281shah@cs.ucf.ed
Abstract 
Sincetherstshape-from-shading(SFS)techniquewasdevelopedbyHornintheearly1970smanydierentapproacheshaveemerged.Inthispaper,sixwell-knownSFSalgorithmsareimplementedandcompared.Theperformanceofthealgorithmswasanalyzedonsyntheticimagesusing meanandstandarddeviationofdepth
)error,meanofsurfacegradient
 p 
)errorandCPU timing.Eachalgorithmworkswellforcertainimages,butperformspoorlyforothers.Ingeneralminimizationapproachesaremorerobust,whiletheotherapproachesarefaster.Theimplementa- tionofthesealgorithmsinC,andimagesusedinthispaper,areavailablebyanonymousftpundeth
 pub=techpaper=survey 
directoryat 
eustis:cs:ucf:ed
(132.170.108.42).Thesearealsopartof theelectronicversionofpaper
Keywords
Shapefromshading,analysisofalgorithms,Lambertianmodel,surveyof shapefromshadingalgorithms
 
ThisworkwassupportedbyNSFgrantsCDA-9122006andCDA-9222798
 
1Introduction   
Shaperecoveryisaclassicproblemincomputervision.Thegoalistoderivea3-Dscene descriptionfromoneormore2-Dimages.Therecoveredshapecanbeexpressedinsev- eralways:dept
x
),surfacenormal
),surfacegradient
 p
),andsurfacslant, 
 
,andtilt
 
.Thedepthcanbeconsideredeitherastherelativedistancefrom cameratosurfacepoints,ortherelativesurfaceheightabovethex-yplane.Thesurfacenormalistheorientationofavectorperpendiculartothetangentplaneontheobjecsurface.Thesurfacegradient,
 p
)=
@@
 
@@
),istherateofchangeofdepthinthe 
an
directions.Thesurfaceslant
 
,andtilt
 
,arerelatedtothesurfacenormalas 
)=
si
 
co
si
 
si
co
 
),wher
isthemagnitudeofthesurfacenormalIncomputervision,thetechniquestorecovershapearecalledshape-from-XtechniqueswhereXcanbeshading,stereo,motion,texture,etc.Shape-from-shading(SFS)dealswittherecoveryofshapefromagradualvariationofshadingintheimage.Artistshavelong exploitedlightingandshadingtoconveyvividillusionsofdepthinpaintings.Tosolvethe SFSproblem,itisimportanttostudyhowtheimagesareformed.AsimplemodelofimagformationistheLambertianmodel,inwhichthegraylevelatapixelintheimagedepends onthelightsourcedirectionandthesurfacenormal.InSFS,givenagraylevelimage,the aimistorecoverthelightsourceandthesurfaceshapeateachpixelintheimage.HoweverrealimagesdonotalwaysfollowtheLambertianmodel.EvenifweassumeLambertiareectanceandknownlightsourcedirection,andifthebrightnesscanbedescribedasfunctionofsurfaceshapeandlightsourcedirection,theproblemisstillnotsimple.Thisibecauseifthesurfaceshapeisdescribedintermsofthesurfacenormal,wehavealinear equationwiththreeunknowns,andifthesurfaceshapeisdescribedintermsofthesurfacgradient,wehaveanon-linearequationwithtwounknowns.Therefore,ndingaunique solutiontoSFSisdicultitrequiresadditionalconstraintsThispaperisaboutthecomparisonandperformanceanalysisofSFStechniques.Wehavimplementedsixwell-knownSFSalgorithms,andcomparedthemintermsoftiming(CPtime)andaccuracy(meanandstandarddeviationofthedeptherrorandmeanofthesurfacgradienterror),inordertoanalyzetheadvantagesanddisadvantagesoftheseapproaches
 
Twosyntheticimageswithtwodierentlightsourceseachandthreerealimageswereuseinourexperiments.Wefoundthatnoneofthealgorithmshasconsistentperformancforallimages,sincetheyworkwellforcertainimages,butperformpoorlyforothers.Igeneral,minimizationapproachesaremorerobust,whiletheotherapproachesarefasterTheimplementationofthesealgorithmsinC,andimagesusedinthispaper,areavailablbyanonymousftp. 
2LiteratureReview    
Shadingplaysanimportantroleinhumanperceptionofsurfaceshape.Researchersinhuman visionhaveattemptedtounderstandandsimulatethemechanismsbywhichoureyesand brainsactuallyusetheshadinginformationtorecoverthe3-Dshapes.Ramachandran45] demonstratedthatthebrainrecoverstheshapeinformationnotonlybytheshading,but alsobytheoutlines,elementaryfeatures,andthevisualsystem'sknowledgeofobjectsTheextractionofSFSbyvisualsystemisalsostronglyaectedbystereoscopicprocessing. BarrowandTenenbaumdiscoveredthatitisthelinedrawingoftheshadingpatternthat seemstoplayacentralroleintheinterpretationofshadedpatterns2].MingollaandTodd'studyofhumanvisualsystembasedontheperceptionofsolidshape30]indicatedthatthe traditionalassumptionsinSFS{Lambertianreectance,knownlightsourcedirection,and localshaperecovery{arenotvalidfrompsychologypointofview.Onecanobservefrom theabovediscussionthathumanvisualsystemusesSFSdierentlythancomputervision normallydoesRecently,Horn,SzeliskiandYuille19]discoveredthatsomeimpossiblyshadedimageexist,whichcouldnotbeshadingimagesofanysmoothsurfaceundertheassumptionof uniformreectancepropertiesandlighting.Forthiskindofimage,SFSwillnotprovidecorrectsolution,soitisnecessarytodetectimpossiblyshadedimagesSFStechniquescanbedividedintofourgroups:minimizationapproaches,propagation approaches,localapproachesandlinearapproaches(seegure1).Minimizationapproaches obtainthesolutionbyminimizinganenergyfunction.Propagationapproachespropagattheshapeinformationfromasetofsurfacepoints(e.g.,singularpoints)tothewholeimageLocalapproachesderiveshapebasedontheassumptionofsurfacetype.Linearapproache

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->