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Spirals and Conchospirals in the flight of Insects. Khristo_Boyadzhiev_CMJ-99

Spirals and Conchospirals in the flight of Insects. Khristo_Boyadzhiev_CMJ-99

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Published by Alekos Dat
acerca del vuelo en espiral de los insectos­­
alrededor de una fuente de luz­­
///
HERMS

todo gira en torno a la luz.. todos los animalesy los seres la persiguen o la rodean..
acerca del vuelo en espiral de los insectos­­
alrededor de una fuente de luz­­
///
HERMS

todo gira en torno a la luz.. todos los animalesy los seres la persiguen o la rodean..

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Published by: Alekos Dat on Oct 25, 2011
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SpiralsandConchospiralsintheFlightofInsects
STOR
®
KhristoN.Boyadzhiev
TheCollegeMathematicsJournal,
Vol.30,No.1.(Jan.,1999),pp.23-31.
StableURL:http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0746-8342%28199901%2930%3Al%3C23%3ASACITF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9
TheCollegeMathematicsJournal
iscurrentlypublishedbyMathematicalAssociationofAmerica.YouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceofJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUse,availableathttp://www.jstor.org/aboutiterms.html.JSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUseprovides,inpart,thatunlessyouhaveobtainedpriorpermission,youmaynotdownloadanentireissueofajournalormultiplecopiesofarticles,andyoumayusecontentintheJSTORarchiveonlyforyourpersonal,non-commercialuse.Pleasecontactthepublisherregardinganyfurtheruseofthiswork.Publishercontactinformationmaybeobtainedathttp://www.jstor.org/journals/maa.html.EachcopyofanypartofaJSTORtransmissionmustcontainthesamecopyrightnoticethatappearsonthescreenorprintedpageofsuchtransmission.JSTORisanindependentnot-for-profitorganizationdedicatedtocreatingandpreservingadigitalarchiveofscholarlyjournals.FormoreinformationregardingJSTOR,pleasecontactsupport@jstor.org.http://www.jstor.org/SatApr113:33:122006
 
SpiralsandConchospiralsintheFlight
of
Insects
KhristoN.Boyadzhiev
KhristoBoyadzhiev
(k-boyadzhiev@onu.edu)receivedhisMSinmathematicsandhisPhD.infunctionalanalysisunderthedirectionofYaroslavTagamlitskiattheuniversityofSofia,Bulgaria(1978).Hismaininterestsareinoperatortheoryandc:;lassicalanalysis,buthealsoenjoysart,historyandtheInternet.AmemberofthemathematicsdepartmentatOhioNorthernUniversitysince1990,hecoordinatesthecalculusprogramandthedepartmentseminar,
"Spiralformsareencountered
so
frequentlythatit'simpossibleeventonamethevarietyoftheirmanifestations...,ourworldisspiral,However,wehavealongwaytogoinexplainingthemysteryofhowspiralsemergeandpersist."
N.Bourbaki[2]
1.Introduction.
Everybodyhasseenhowmothsspiralaroundanightlight.Iftheyaresimplyattractedtothelight,theywouldflyonastraightline.Thespiraltrajectoryisexplainedbythewaysomeprimitiveanimalsorientthemselvesbyapointlightsource[4].Insectshavecompoundeyesconsistingofmanyommatidia,whicharesingledetectorsoflight.Beamsoflightstimulateasmallgroupofommatidia,orthogonaltothebeams,andthisdeterminestheangularpositionrelativetothelightsource,Whenthebeamsareparallelandtheinsectwantstogoinstraightline,itneedstoflyinsuchawaythatthesamegroupofommatidiawillstayactivated,Thatis,itneedstokeepaconstantanglewiththebeams,seeFigure
1.
Figure1
Wewilluse
Q'
fortheanglebetweenthedirectionofflightandthedirectiontowardsthelightsource.Naturally,0
SQ'S
1T,
Formillionsofyearsinsectsusedthe
VOL.30,NO,1,JANUARY1999
23
 
moonandthesunfororientation.Theirbeamsarepracticallyparallelandhelpmaintainastraightpath.Thesituationchangedwhenhumansintroducedotherlightsources.Ifamothkeepsaconstantangle
a
totheradialbeamsofanelectriclight,thenitfliesonastraightlineonlywhen
a
=
0,flyingdirectlytowardsthelight,or
a
=
T',
flyingdirectlyawayfromthelight.
It
willapproachthelightonaspiralwhen
°
<
a
<
1T'
/2(Figure2)orflyawayonaspiralwhen
1T'
/2
<
a
<
1T'.
Inthespecialcasewhen
a
=
T'
/2,itfliesincirclesaroundthelight.Whenthemotionisinaplane,thetrajectoryisanequiangularspiral,asconfirmedbyobservations.Wepresenthereastudyofthegeneralcase,orientationbyalightsourcein3-space.First,though,wewillconsidertheplanarmotion.
Figure2
2.Planarlawofmotion.
Weassumethatthelightsourceisattheoriginofthecoordinatesystem.Supposeourinsectwithradiusvector
x
=
(x,
y)
fliesbythelaw
x(t)
=
r(t)cos(
8(
t)),
y(
t)
=
r(t)sin(
8(
t))
(2.1)
where
t
istime,
r,
8arethepolarcoordinates,andweallow8torunfrom-
00
to
+
00.
Thedirectionofflightisgivenbythetangentvector
x'
andwewanttheangle
a
between
x'
and
-x
(thedirectiontowardthelight)tostayconstant(Figure3).Thiswaywehave
x'
=
r'
cos(8)-
r
sine8)8
I,
y'
=
r'
sine8)
+
r
cos(8)8
I
xx'
+yy'r'
.==
-cos
a
(2.2)
VX2+y2V(XI)2+(yl)2V(rl)2+(8,)2r2'
~I~
-O-----_J_----'I,----
~I\"
Figure3
24
THECOLLEGEMATHEMATICSJOURNAL

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