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School as a Community_Lect_4

School as a Community_Lect_4

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1
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
IN EDUCATION
IN EDUCATION
FR. ALAN SCERRI
FR. ALAN SCERRI
M.Ed. (Educational Leadership)
M.Ed. (Educational Leadership)
University of Malta
University of Malta
2
The sources of authority for leadership
The sources of authority for leadership
With proper
With proper
monitoring
monitoring
teachers
teachers
respond as
respond as
technicians,
technicians,
executing
executing
predetermined
predetermined
scripts, and their
scripts, and their
performance is
performance is
narrowed.
narrowed.
\u201c
\u201cExpect and inspect
Expect and inspect\u201d
\u201dis
is
the overarching rule.
the overarching rule.
Rely on predetermined
Rely on predetermined
standards, to which
standards, to which
teachers must measure
teachers must measure
up.
up.
Identify their needs and
Identify their needs and
\u201c
\u201cin
in-
-service
service\u201d
\u201dthem.
them.
Directly supervise and
Directly supervise and
closely monitor the
closely monitor the
work of teachers, to
work of teachers, to
ensure compliance.
ensure compliance.
Figure out how to
Figure out how to
motivate them and get
motivate them and get
them to change.
them to change.
Teachers are subordinates
Teachers are subordinates
in a hierarchically arranged
in a hierarchically arranged
system.
system.
Supervisors are
Supervisors are
trustworthy, but
trustworthy, but
subordinates are not.
subordinates are not.
Goals and interests of
Goals and interests of
teachers and supervisors
teachers and supervisors
are not the same, and
are not the same, and
supervisors must be
supervisors must be
watchful.
watchful.
Hierarchy equals expertise,
Hierarchy equals expertise,
and so supervisors know
and so supervisors know
more than teachers do.
more than teachers do.
External accountability
External accountability
works best.
works best.
Bureaucratic
Bureaucratic
authority:
authority:
Hierarchy
Hierarchy
Rules and
Rules and
regulations
regulations
(teachers
(teachers
comply or face
comply or face
consequences)
consequences)
Consequences
Consequences
Leadership/Supervis
Leadership/Supervis
ory strategy
ory strategy
Assumptions when use
Assumptions when use
of this source is primary
of this source is primary
Sources
Sources
3
Teachers respond as
Teachers respond as
required when
required when
rewards are available,
rewards are available,
but not otherwise;
but not otherwise;
their involvement is
their involvement is
calculated and
calculated and
performance is
performance is
narrowed.
narrowed.
Develop a school
Develop a school
climate characterized
climate characterized
by high congeniality
by high congeniality
among teachers and
among teachers and
between teachers and
between teachers and
supervisors.
supervisors.
\u201c
\u201cExpect and reward.
Expect and reward.\u201d
\u201d
\u201c
\u201cwhat gets rewarded
what gets rewarded
gets done.
gets done.\u201d
\u201d
Use psychological
Use psychological
authority in
authority in
combination with
combination with
bureaucratic and
bureaucratic and
technical
technical-
-relational
relational
authority.
authority.
The goals and
The goals and
interests of teachers
interests of teachers
and supervisors are
and supervisors are
not the same but can
not the same but can
be bartered so that
be bartered so that
each side gets what it
each side gets what it
wants.
wants.
Teachers have needs,
Teachers have needs,
and if they are met at
and if they are met at
work, the work gets
work, the work gets
done as required.
done as required.
Congenial
Congenial
relationships and a
relationships and a
harmonious
harmonious
interpersonal climate
interpersonal climate
make teachers
make teachers
content, easier to
content, easier to
work with, and more
work with, and more
apt to cooperate.
apt to cooperate.
Personal authority
Personal authority
Motivational
Motivational
technology
technology
Interpersonal skills
Interpersonal skills
Human relations
Human relations
leadership
leadership
(teachers will want to
(teachers will want to
comply because of the
comply because of the
congenial climate and
congenial climate and
the rewards.)
the rewards.)
4
Teachers respond
Teachers respond
to professional
to professional
norms; their
norms; their
practice becomes
practice becomes
collective, they
collective, they
require little
require little
monitoring, and
monitoring, and
their performance
their performance
is expansive.
is expansive.
Promote a dialogue
Promote a dialogue
among teachers that
among teachers that
explicitly states
explicitly states
professional values
professional values
and accepted tenets
and accepted tenets
of practice.
of practice.
Translate them into
Translate them into
professional
professional
standards.
standards.
Give teachers as
Give teachers as
much discretion as
much discretion as
they want and need.
they want and need.
Situation of practice
Situation of practice
are idiosyncratic, and
are idiosyncratic, and
no one best way
no one best way
exists
exists
Scientific knowledge
Scientific knowledge
and professional
and professional
knowledge are
knowledge are
different, with
different, with
professional
professional
knowledge created in
knowledge created in
use as teachers
use as teachers
practice.
practice.
Professional
Professional
authority
authority
Informed craft
Informed craft
knowledge and
knowledge and
personal expertise
personal expertise
(teachers respond in
(teachers respond in
light of common
light of common
socialization,
socialization,
professional values,
professional values,
accepted tenets of
accepted tenets of
practice and
practice and
internalized expertise.)
internalized expertise.)
Supervisors must be
Supervisors must be
experts in reading
experts in reading
needs and in other
needs and in other
people
people-
-handling
handling
skills, to barter
skills, to barter
successfully for
successfully for
compliance and
compliance and
increases in
increases in
performance.
performance.
5
Require teachers to
Require teachers to
hold one another
hold one another
accountable for
accountable for
meeting practice
meeting practice
standards
standards
Make assistance,
Make assistance,
support and
support and
professional
professional
development
development
opportunities
opportunities
available.
available.
The purpose of
The purpose of
scientific knowledge
scientific knowledge
is to inform, not
is to inform, not
prescribe practice.
prescribe practice.
Authority cannot be
Authority cannot be
external but comes
external but comes
from the context
from the context
itself and from
itself and from
within the teacher.
within the teacher.
Authority from
Authority from
context comes from
context comes from
training and
training and
experience.
experience.
Authority from
Authority from
within comes from
within comes from
socialization and
socialization and
internalized values
internalized values
6
Teachers respond to
Teachers respond to
community values
community values
for moral reasons;
for moral reasons;
their practice
their practice
becomes collective,
becomes collective,
and their
and their
performance is
performance is
expansive and
expansive and
sustained.
sustained.
Identify and make
Identify and make
explicit the values and
explicit the values and
beliefs that define the
beliefs that define the
centre of the school as
centre of the school as
a community.
a community.
Translate them into
Translate them into
informal norms that
informal norms that
govern behaviour.
govern behaviour.
Promote collegiality as
Promote collegiality as
internally felt and
internally felt and
morally driven
morally driven
interdependence.
interdependence.
Rely on the ability of
Rely on the ability of
community members
community members
to respond to duties
to respond to duties
and obligations.
and obligations.
Rely on the
Rely on the
community
community\u2019
\u2019s informal
s informal
norms to enforce
norms to enforce
professional and
professional and
community values
community values
Schools are
Schools are
professional learning
professional learning
communities.
communities.
Communities are
Communities are
defined by their
defined by their
centres of shared
centres of shared
values, beliefs and
values, beliefs and
commitments.
commitments.
In communities,
In communities,
what is considered
what is considered
right and good is as
right and good is as
important as what
important as what
works and what is
works and what is
effective; people are
effective; people are
motivated as much
motivated as much
by emotion and
by emotion and
beliefs as by self
beliefs as by self-
-
interests; and
interests; and
collegiality is a
collegiality is a
professional virtue.
professional virtue.
Moral authority
Moral authority
Felt obligation and
Felt obligation and
duties derived from
duties derived from
widely shared
widely shared
community values,
community values,
ideas, and ideals.
ideas, and ideals.
(teachers respond to
(teachers respond to
shared commitments
shared commitments
and felt
and felt
interdependence.)
interdependence.)
7
\u2022
\u2022Follow me leadership:
Follow me leadership:
\u2022 it cannot work without some external force that pushes or pulls
people in a desired direction
\u2022 It requires follow up in the form of monitoring, to ensure that
the desired movement continue.

\u2022 Skilfully practised it gets people to cooperate, but it cannot
inspire the kind of commitment that will make schools work well
as it tends to induce some sense of subordination.

\u2022 Moral leadership:
\u2022 Leadership is based on moral authority. Teachers are expected
to respond to shared commitments and felt interdependence.

\u2022 Instead of asking the \u201cwhy?\u201d or \u201cwho to follow?\u201d question in
doing things, the members start asking \u201cwhat to follow?\u201d \u2013 the
shared values and beliefs that define us as community and the
ideals that define us as professionals.

\u2022 Than we will ask \u201cwhy?\u201d, because it is morally right to do so. It
is our duty and obligation.
\u2022 \u201cWhom to follow?\u201d \u2013 ourselves as morally conscious and
committed people.
8
\u2022
\u2022Instead of relying on rules and interpersonal
Instead of relying on rules and interpersonal
skills, leaders will be able to rely on standards of
skills, leaders will be able to rely on standards of
practice and professional norms as reasons for
practice and professional norms as reasons for
doing things. Leadership itself will become less
doing things. Leadership itself will become less
direct and intense as standards and norms take
direct and intense as standards and norms take
hold (
hold (Sergiovanni
Sergiovanni, 1992)
, 1992)
\u2022
\u2022The norms and values associated with
The norms and values associated with
professionalism as well as the norms and values
professionalism as well as the norms and values
that define the school as a learning community,
that define the school as a learning community,
will become substitutes for leadership.
will become substitutes for leadership.
9
The Head, Heart and Hand of Leadership
\u2022
\u2022The heart
the head
the hand
The heart
the head
the hand
(what I value
(my mindscape
(what I value
(my mindscape
(my decisions,
(my decisions,
and believe)
and believe)
of how the world
of how the world
actions and
actions and
works)
behaviour
works)
behaviour)
)
\u2022
\u2022The head of leadership has to do with the mindscapes, or
The head of leadership has to do with the mindscapes, or
theories of practice, that leaders develop over time, and with
theories of practice, that leaders develop over time, and with
their ability in light of these theories to reflect on the situa
their ability in light of these theories to reflect on the situation
tion
they face.
they face.
\u2022
\u2022Reflection combined with personal vision and an internal system
Reflection combined with personal vision and an internal system
of values, becomes the basis of leadership strategies and action
of values, becomes the basis of leadership strategies and actions.
s.
\u2022
\u2022If the heart and the head are separated from the hand, then the
If the heart and the head are separated from the hand, then the
leader
leader\u2019
\u2019s actions, decisions and behaviour cannot be understood.
s actions, decisions and behaviour cannot be understood.
10
Moral authority or covenant of shared values
Moral authority or covenant of shared values
\u2022
\u2022From Moral or Sacred authority are derived values as
From Moral or Sacred authority are derived values as
purposing, or
purposing, or building a covenant
building a covenantof shared values, one
of shared values, one
that bonds people in a common cause and transforms a
that bonds people in a common cause and transforms a
school from an organization into a community.
school from an organization into a community.
\u2022
\u2022Schools based on a value system:
Schools based on a value system:
\ue000
\ue000They all focus on a particular group of people,
They all focus on a particular group of people,\u2018
\u2018a
a
chosen people
chosen people\u2019
\u2019.
.Membership automatically provides
Membership automatically provides
emotional security.
emotional security.
\ue000
\ue000They all promote a particular way of organizing society,
They all promote a particular way of organizing society,
a belief that provides an emotional identity.
a belief that provides an emotional identity.
\ue000
\ue000They all require an emotional stimulus, such as a
They all require an emotional stimulus, such as a
mission, a sense of purpose or
mission, a sense of purpose or a covenant of shared
a covenant of shared
values
valueswhich represents the core that defines the group
which represents the core that defines the group
as a community.
as a community.
11
EmileDurkheim
EmileDurkheim:
:\u201c
\u201cThe Division of Labour in
The Division of Labour in
society
society\u201d
\u201d
\u2022
\u2022\u201c
\u201cWhen we are without values, goals and norms we become
When we are without values, goals and norms we become
alienated from ourselves, from others and ultimately from
alienated from ourselves, from others and ultimately from
society, with all the imaginable negative consequences
society, with all the imaginable negative consequences\u201d
\u201d.
.
\u2022
\u2022Involvement in community has three elements:
Involvement in community has three elements:
\ue000
\ue000Duty;
Duty;implying a sense of self
implying a sense of self-
-constraint through duty to
constraint through duty to
collectivity
collectivity
\ue000
\ue000Attachment
Attachment, involving a sense of membership, commitment
, involving a sense of membership, commitment
and identity with the
and identity with thecollectivity
collectivity.
.
\ue000
\ue000Self
Self-
-determination
determination, involving knowledge, and a rational sense
, involving knowledge, and a rational sense
of awareness regarding the reasons for duty and attachment to
of awareness regarding the reasons for duty and attachment to
the
thecollectivity
collectivity
\u2022
\u2022When the collective conscience is lost, we are deprived of
When the collective conscience is lost, we are deprived of
opportunities to respond to duty, to become attached, to express
opportunities to respond to duty, to become attached, to express
self
self-
-determination. This leads to a sense of
determination. This leads to a sense ofnormlessness
normlessnessand
and
disconnectedness.
disconnectedness.
12
\u2022
\u2022In communities it is the authority of virtue not
In communities it is the authority of virtue not
the power of position that licenses one to lead.
the power of position that licenses one to lead.
Virtue is embedded in what a community shares
Virtue is embedded in what a community shares
and in its collective wisdom.
and in its collective wisdom.
\u2022
\u2022Plato
Plato\u2013
\u2013\u2018
\u2018Utopia
Utopia\u2019
\u2019:
:
\ue000
\ue000\u201c
\u201cUntil
Until\u2026
\u2026political greatness (leadership) and
political greatness (leadership) and
wisdom meet in one, and those commoner
wisdom meet in one, and those commoner
natures who pursue either to the exclusion of
natures who pursue either to the exclusion of
the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will
the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will
never have rest from their evils
never have rest from their evils\u2013
\u2013no nor the
no nor the
human race.
human race.\u201d
\u201d
13
The notion of
The notion of\u201c
\u201cCovenant
Covenant\u201d
\u201din schools
in schools
\u2022
\u2022Purposing involves both the vision of school leaders
Purposing involves both the vision of school leaders
and the covenant that the school shares
and the covenant that the school shares\u2026
\u2026.A covenant
.A covenant
provides the added dimension of values and moral
provides the added dimension of values and moral
authority to make purposing count.
authority to make purposing count.
\u2022
\u2022The school
The school\u2019
\u2019s covenant
s covenant; it is not enough for schools to
; it is not enough for schools to
be successful to have worked out what people stands
be successful to have worked out what people stands
for and what is to be accomplished. A binding and
for and what is to be accomplished. A binding and
solemn agreement must emerge, one that represents a
solemn agreement must emerge, one that represents a
value system for living together and forms the basis for
value system for living together and forms the basis for
decisions and actions.
decisions and actions.
\u2022
\u2022A covenantal relationship rests on a shared
A covenantal relationship rests on a shared
commitment to ideas, to issues, to values to goals.
commitment to ideas, to issues, to values to goals.
14
\u2022
\u2022\u201c
\u201ccovenants are solemn and binding agreements
covenants are solemn and binding agreements
between tow or more parties that provide
between tow or more parties that provide
reciprocal rights, duties, and obligations on the
reciprocal rights, duties, and obligations on the
one hand, and guidelines for action, on the
one hand, and guidelines for action, on the
other. They define how one should live as an
other. They define how one should live as an
individual and one
individual and one\u2019
\u2019s collective life as a member
s collective life as a member
of the community
of the community\u201d
\u201d(
(Sergiovanni
Sergiovanni, 1992)
, 1992)
\u2022
\u2022Covenant must be
Covenant must be built from the bottom up
built from the bottom up, as
, as
the school strives to complete the
the school strives to complete the
transformation from organization to
transformation from organization to
community.
community.
15
Leader as servant
Leader as servant
\u2022
\u2022One dimension of the professional virtue is the
One dimension of the professional virtue is the
caring ethic. Caring places teachers and
caring ethic. Caring places teachers and
administrators in the service to others.
administrators in the service to others.
\u2022
\u2022As servant, the school fully accepts its
As servant, the school fully accepts its
responsibility to do everything it can to care for
responsibility to do everything it can to care for
the full range of needs of its students, teachers
the full range of needs of its students, teachers
and parents.
and parents.
\u2022
\u2022Students are served in many ways. One way to
Students are served in many ways. One way to
respect and serve them is to share time with
respect and serve them is to share time with
them. Since time is a scarce resource, how it is
them. Since time is a scarce resource, how it is
used communicates powerful messages.
used communicates powerful messages.
16
\u2022
\u2022The caring ethic. Caring places teachers and
The caring ethic. Caring places teachers and
administrators in service to others. As servant, the
administrators in service to others. As servant, the
school fully accepts its responsibility to do everything it
school fully accepts its responsibility to do everything it
can to care for the full range of needs of its students,
can to care for the full range of needs of its students,
teachers and parents.
teachers and parents.
\u2022
\u2022One way to respect and serve students is to share time
One way to respect and serve students is to share time
with them. Since time is a scarce resource, how it is
with them. Since time is a scarce resource, how it is
used communicates powerful messages.
used communicates powerful messages.
\u2022
\u2022Invites participation from all members of the school
Invites participation from all members of the school
community in shaping decisions that concerns the
community in shaping decisions that concerns the
school, therefore their role as part of the school
school, therefore their role as part of the school
community.
community.
The Leader: the one who serves
The Leader: the one who serves
17
\u2022
\u2022The leader understands that serving others is
The leader understands that serving others is
important but that the most important thing is
important but that the most important thing is
to serve the values and ideas that help shape the
to serve the values and ideas that help shape the
school as a covenantal community.
school as a covenantal community.In this sense
In this sense
all the members of a community share the
all the members of a community share the
burden of servant leadership.
burden of servant leadership.
\u2022
\u2022The effectiveness of a leader lies in his ability to
The effectiveness of a leader lies in his ability to
make activity meaningful for those in his role set
make activity meaningful for those in his role set
\u2013
\u2013not to change behavior but to
not to change behavior but to give others a
give others a
sense of understanding what they are doing
sense of understanding what they are doingand
and
especially to articulate it so that they can
especially to articulate it so that they can
communicate about the meaning of their
communicate about the meaning of their
behavior?
behavior?
18
\u2022
\u2022Principals have special stewardship obligations
Principals have special stewardship obligations
1.
1.They must plant the seeds of community
They must plant the seeds of community
2.
2.Nurture budding community and protect the
Nurture budding community and protect the
community once it emerges. To do this:
community once it emerges. To do this:
\ue000
\ue000They lead by following
They lead by following
\ue000
\ue000They lead by serving
They lead by serving
\ue000
\ue000They lead by inviting others to share in the
They lead by inviting others to share in the
burdens of leadership
burdens of leadership
\ue000
\ue000They lead by knowing
They lead by knowing
\ue000
\ue000They lead by being
They lead by being

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