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ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE AT NCAM, ILORIN FOR IMPROVED IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE AT NCAM, ILORIN FOR IMPROVED IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

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Published by Francis Abulude
Makanjuola, M. B., James David, T. A. Makar and I. E. Ahaneku
Department of Land and Water Engineering Management, National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Ilorin.

ABSTRACT
The recharge rate is a very important parameter required in the successful development of ground water resources, as often, it is this rate that can be safely abstracted as safe yield from wells and boreholes. Groundwater recharge was estimated for 2 wells located in areas representing the different land uses at NCAM using the water table fluctuation method. The yield from sites A and B were 0.02 – 0.2 m3/hr and 0.008 – 0.03 m3/hr respectively while the peak scheme water demand required for producing dry season vegetables for 0.5ha was obtained as 0.002 m3/s. Achieving better understanding of the mechanisms that control groundwater recharge is crucial towards improving groundwater management.


Makanjuola, M. B., James David, T. A. Makar and I. E. Ahaneku
Department of Land and Water Engineering Management, National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), Ilorin.

ABSTRACT
The recharge rate is a very important parameter required in the successful development of ground water resources, as often, it is this rate that can be safely abstracted as safe yield from wells and boreholes. Groundwater recharge was estimated for 2 wells located in areas representing the different land uses at NCAM using the water table fluctuation method. The yield from sites A and B were 0.02 – 0.2 m3/hr and 0.008 – 0.03 m3/hr respectively while the peak scheme water demand required for producing dry season vegetables for 0.5ha was obtained as 0.002 m3/s. Achieving better understanding of the mechanisms that control groundwater recharge is crucial towards improving groundwater management.


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Published by: Francis Abulude on Oct 25, 2011
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7
Continental J. Engineering Sciences 6 (3): 7 - 13, 2011 ISSN: 2141 4068© Wilolud Journals, 2011 http://www.wiloludjournal.com` Printed in NigeriaPOSITION CONTROL OF PARABOLIC DISH ANTENNA USING FEEDBACK, ZEIGLER-NICHOLSAND QUADRATIC OPTIMAL REGULATOR METHODSM. Ahmad, J. D. Jiya, E. C. Anene
3
, Y.S. HarunaElectrical and Electronics Engineering Programme, School of Engineering and Engineering TechnologyAbubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P. M. B. 0248 Bauchi, Nigeria.ABSTRACTA unity feedback servomotor actuated parabolic dish antenna system was modeled, and two differenttypes of controllers were designed for the system using; Ziegler-Nichols and Quadratic OptimalRegulator methods for the close loop operation of the system. Their responses were simulated using thesoftware package MATLAB 7.1. Simulation results showed that each of the controllers greatlyimproved the system response. Best system responses were obtained via the Quadratic OptimalRegulator method.KEYWORDS: Controller, Quadratic Optimal Regulator, Servomotor, Ziegler-Nichols Method.INTRODUCTIONThe advancement in satellite technology has made the whole world become a global village such that eventshappening at a particular location can be monitored as it happens in other locations. These satellites arenormally stationed far above the earth in geosynchronous orbit. Therefore signals reaching the earth are veryweak; hence reception of these signals requires the use of antennas with very high gains. The parabolic dishantennas give high gains at microwave frequencies with comparatively small dimensions, and at microwavefrequencies receives maximum signal field when positioned in the line-of-sight of the transmission satellite.Servomotors are used to position these dish antennas and therefore steady state positional errors should beminimized. The use of parabolic antennas is not limited to satellite communications. It also finds applications inradar systems, long distance communication (e.g. telephony) and so on (Hart, 2000). The use of these systemshave the advantages of minimizing human error and energy, quick and easier repositioning to another directionor its initial position in case the antenna is displaced by disturbances such as wind, gust, bearing andaerodynamic frictions and so on (Gawronski, 2004).Figure 1: Illustration of Servomotor Actuated Parabolic AntennaA controller (compensator) is a device or sub-system inserted into a system in order to modify the systemdynamics. There are many methods used in control systems analysis and design such as; the root-locus method,frequency-response method, the state space method and PID compensation methods (Mandal, 2006).2. Dynamic Model of the SystemThe equivalent circuit of field controlled D.C. servomotor is as shown in the Figure 2.
Paraboliic antennaArrangement (Load)
I
a
L
 I
R
 V
 
Gearing arrangement
 
8
M. Ahmad
et al
.,: Continental J. Engineering Sciences 6 (3): 7 - 13, 2011Figure 2: Equivalent Circuit of Field Controlled D.C. Servomotor Actuated AntennaConsider the figure 2 above;
i f 
D
1
=
………………………………………………………………………………(1)
 f  f  f  f 
SL I  R
+
………………………………..……………………………………....(2)Equating (1) and (2) and
 f 
 I 
the subject
( )
( )
 f  f i f 
SL R D I 
+=
1
…………………………...………………...…………………..(3)Where;
 f 
 I 
is the motor field current,
 f 
 L
is the motor field inductance,
 f 
 R
 
is the motor field resistance,
i
 D
is the control input.The electromechanical torque developed by the motor is proportional to the motor current (Gopal and Nagrath,2003). Therefore;
 f mm
=
………………………………………………………………….……….… (4)Where;
m
is the electromechanical torque and
m
the motor torque constant.The electromechanical dynamics of the antenna system is given as;
dt dt  J 
m
0202
θ  θ  
+=
………………………………..………………………………… (5)Taking the laplace transform,
002
θ  θ  
FS JS
m
+=
…………………………...…………………………………......… (6)Equating (4) and (6), we have;
 f m
 I FS JS
=+
002
θ  θ  
………………………………………………………………… (7)Substituting (3) in (7);Therefore;
( )
( )
 f  f im
SL R DFS JS
+=+
1002
θ  θ  
………………………….................................... (8)Hence;
( )
( )
( )
SJ SSL R  D
 f  f mi
++=
10
θ  
………………………………………...…………..……… (9)
I
a
L
 I
R
 V
 
 
K
1
 
ϴ
o
 JFD
i
 
 
9
M. Ahmad
et al
.,: Continental J. Engineering Sciences 6 (3): 7 - 13, 2011Where;
 J 
is the moment of inertia of the antenna system (load) referred to the shaft of the servomotor,F is the coefficient of damping of the antenna system (load) referred to the shaft of the servomotor,N is the motor-to-load gear ratio.Equation (9) can be expressed as;
i
 DGG
210
=
θ  
…………………….………………………………………...……...…… (10)
( )
( )
 f  f 
SL RG
+=
11
………………………………...………………………..………...… (11)
( )( )( )
SJ SG
m
+=
2
……………………………………………………………...……… (12)For a unity feedback the block diagram is as shown below;Figure 3: Block Diagram of the Unity Feedback Closed Loop SystemThe Plant transfer function
21
GG
is given as;
( )
( )
( )
 f  f  f  f  m
SFR JR LS JLS GG
+++=
23121
=
SSS
50158.136
23
++
…………………….....(13)The closed loop transfer function becomes;
    
+
    
+
    
++=
 f m f  f  f  f mio
 JL JL RS Lf  R J SS JL D
1231
θ  
……………………………………...(14)Using the parameters in tables 1 and 2, the transfer function becomes;
( )
8.1365015 8.136
230
+++=
SSS D
i
θ  
……………………………………...………………..(15)The characteristics of servomotor and the parameters of a typical parabolic dish antenna are given in Tables 1and 2.Table 1 Characteristics of ServomotorPARAMETER VALUEMotor field resistance
 f 
 R
 100
 Motor field inductance
 f 
 L
 20HMotor torque constant
m
 20Nm/AMotor-to-load gear ratio
 N 
 1:50
 
+-
1
G
 
2
G
 
i
 D
 
0
θ  
 

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