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Machine Shop Project PracticeMSPP

Machine Shop Project PracticeMSPP



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Published by: DIPAK VINAYAK SHIRBHATE on Oct 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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C.O.E.& T.Akola.
Study of LATHE machine

The lathe is one of the oldest machine tools and came into existence from the early tree lathe which was then a novel device for rotating and machining a piece of work held between two adjacent trees. A rope wound round the work with its one end attached to a flexible branch of a tree and the other end being pulled by a man caused the job to rotate intermittently. Hand tools were then used. With its further development a strip of wood called \u201clath\u201d was used to support the rope and that is how the machine came to be known as \u201clathe\u201d. This device continued to develop through centuries and in the year 1797 Henry Maudslay, an Englishman, designed the first screw cutting lathe which is the forerunner of the present day high speed, heavy duty production lathe a machine tool which has practically given shape to our present day civilization by building machines and industries.

The types generally used are :
1. Speed lathe.
(a) Wood working.
(b) Centering.
(c) Polishing.
(d) Spinning.
2. Engine lathe

(a) Belt drive.
(b) Individual motor drive.
(c) Gear head lathe.

3. Bench lathe.
4. Tool room lathe.
5. Capstan and Turret lathe.
6. Special purpose.
(a) Wheel lathe.
(b) Gap bed lathe.
(c) T-lathe.
(d) Duplicating lathe.
7. Automatic lathe.
Fig. illustrates the basic parts of a geared head lathe. Following are the
principal parts:
1. Bed.
4. Carriage
2. Headstock.
5. Feed mechanism.
3. Tailstock.
6. Screw cutting mechanism.

The lathe bed forms the base of the machine. The headstock and the tailstock are located at either end of the bed and the carriage rests over the lathe bed and slides on it. The lathe bed being the main guiding member of the tool, for accurate machining work, must satisfy the following conditions :

1. It should be sufficiently rigid to prevent deflection under tremendous cutting
pressure transmitted through the tool-post and carriage to the lathe bed.
2. It must be massive with sufficient depth and width to absorb vibration.
3. It must the twisting stress set up due to the resultant of two forces- the downward
cutting force on the tool and the force tending to move the tool away from the
C.O.E.& T.Akola.
work in a horizontal direction. This is best done by diagonal ribbing or making
box section casting shown in Fig.
Box Section Lathe Bed

4. The bed should be seasoned naturally to avoid distortion or warp that may develop when it is cooled after the bed is cast. On the top of the bed there are two sets of slides or guideways- outerways and innerways. The outer guideways provide bearing and sliding surfaces for the carriage, and the innerways for the tailstock. The guiding surfaces are accurately machined to make them parallel to the lathe axis, absolutely horizontal, and sufficiently plain. The guiding surface should also be resistant to wear. Chilled castings are sometimes used to improve wear resisting qualities.

Lathe Bed Diagonal Ribs
1. Diagonal rib, 2. Bedways.
The guideways of the lathe bed may be flat and inverted \u2013 V having an
included angle of 900. The wide flat guideways provide a large bearing surface with

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