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Pedagogie Alternative ice Interactive

Pedagogie Alternative ice Interactive

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Capitolul 1
Sistemul de educa]ie
Etimologic conceptul de sistem provine din grecescul \u201csystema\u201d care \u00eenseamn\u0103 ansamblul
unor p\u0103r\u0163i, corelate \u00eentre ele.

Sistemul de educa\u0163ie este format din totalitatea institu\u0163iilor, organiza\u0163iilor (economice, politice, culturale), infrastructurilor\u015fi comunit\u0103\u0163ilor social-umane (familie, anturaj) care contribuie la formarea\u015fi dezvoltarea personalit\u0103\u0163ii umane prin exercitarea unor func\u0163ii\u015fi roluri pedagogice explicite sau implicite, \u00een mod direct sau indirect. (vezi Sorin Cristea, 2002, p. 337)

\u00centr-o societate determinat\u0103 istoric, sistemul de educa\u0163ie se materializeaz\u0103 printr-o educa\u0163ie de tip formal, nonformal sau informal, incluz\u00e2nd toate dimensiunile (intelectuale, morale, estetice, tehnologice, fizice) implicate \u00een cadrul ac\u0163iunilor educa\u0163ionale organizate, structurate\u015fi planificate sau \u00een contextul influen\u0163elor incidentale de tip pedagogic provenite din c\u00e2mpul psihosocial.

\u201cSocietatea educativ\u0103\u201d sau \u201ccetatea educativ\u0103\u201d pentru care militeaz\u0103 Paul Lengrand (1972) sau Edgar Faure (1974) este aceea \u00een care exist\u0103 multiple\u015fi variate surse de educa\u0163ie, cu deschidere c\u0103tre c\u00e2mpul larg al influen\u0163elor formativ-educative din afara\u015fcolii, valorificabile din perspectiva educa\u0163iei permanente\u015fi autoeduca\u0163iei. Aceast\u0103 deschidere angajeaz\u0103 responsabilit\u0103\u0163i de tip pedagogic la nivelul mai multor institu\u0163ii/organiza\u0163ii economice, culturale\u015fi politice precum\u015fi comunit\u0103\u0163i social-umane (familia, na\u0163iunea, grupurile profesionale, etnice sau locale).

1.1 Sistemul de \u00eenvq]qm\u00e2nt
Sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt reprezint\u0103 principalul subsistem al sistemului de educa\u0163ie,
care se refer\u0103 la organizarea institu\u0163ional\u0103 a \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2ntului.

\u00cen cadrul sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt sunt reunite institu\u0163iile specializate implicate \u00een procesul de educa\u0163ie, cercetare\u015fi cultur\u0103, responsabile de realizarea \u00een mod organizat, planificat\u015fi metodic a dezideratelor educative. Proiectarea\u015fi realizarea func\u0163iilor educa\u0163iei prin con\u0163inuturi\u015fi metodologii specifice, organizate formal\u015fi nonformal se realizeaz\u0103 \u00een conformitate cu anumite principii educa\u0163ionale generale\u015fi \u00een corela\u0163ie cu gradul de dezvoltare economic\u0103, social\u0103\u015fi politic\u0103 a societ\u0103\u0163ii.

\u00cen viziune postmodernist\u0103, sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt, \u00een sens larg, cuprinde \u201cansamblul institu\u0163iilor care particip\u0103 la organizarea arhitecturii\u015fcolare, adic\u0103 la derularea general\u0103 a studiilor pe cicluri, orient\u0103ri, filiere etc.\u201d (\u201cDictionnaire encyclopedique de l\u2019education et de la formation\u201d,

1994, p. 956). Privit din aceast\u0103 perspectiv\u0103, sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt are un caracter deschis incluz\u00e2nd pe l\u00e2ng\u0103 institu\u0163iile\u015fcolare\u015fi universitare cu caracterformal\u015fi institu\u0163ile specializate \u00een instruirenonformal\u0103, cum ar fi centrele de preg\u0103tire profesional\u0103, cluburile, taberele\u015fcolare, programele de radio/televiziune\u015fcolar\u0103/universitar\u0103, pe de o parte\u015fi pe de alt\u0103 parte, diferi\u0163i agen\u0163i sociali cu care\u015fcoala stabile\u015fte rela\u0163ii de tip contractual (\u015fcolile

Capitolul 1 | Capitolul 2 | Capitolul 3 | Capitolul 4 | Capitolul 5 | Capitolul 6 | Capitolul 7 | Capitolul 8 | Capitolul 9
militare,\u015fcolile profesionale, biserica) sau consensuale ( familia, comunitatea local\u0103). (vezi
Gabriela C. Cristea, 2002, p. 107)

\u00cen sens restr\u00e2ns sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt cuprinde institu\u0163iile\u015fcolare (\u015fcoala primar\u0103, gimnaziul, liceul, \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2ntul profesional\u015fi superior), organizate pe trepte, cicluri\u015fi ani de studii. Privit din acest punct de vedere, sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt este definit casistem\u015fcolar, \u201cspecializat \u00een realizarea func\u0163iilor pedagogice ale sistemului de educa\u0163ie la nivelul procesului de instruire, \u00een cadrul concret al activit\u0103\u0163ii didactice/educative.\u201d (Dic\u0163ionarul de pedagogie, 1979, p. 411)

Ca \u201cparte a sistemului de educa\u0163ie\u201d, sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt cuprinde \u201cre\u0163eaua organiza\u0163iilor\u015fcolare\u201d determinat\u0103 \u00een plan pedagogic\u015fi juridic, \u00een contextul unor \u201cservicii publice\u201d dorite a fi deschise\u015fi receptive permanent la nou \u00een vederea realiz\u0103rii cu maxim\u0103 eficien\u0163\u0103 a activit\u0103\u0163ii de baz\u0103 a procesului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt,\u015fi anume instruirea. (\u201cDictionnaire encyclopedique de l\u2019education et de la formation\u201d, 1994, pp. 956-958).

\u201e\u015ecoala rom\u00e2neasc\u0103 se afl\u0103 \u00een plin proces de reform\u0103, at\u00e2t \u00een plan structural, c\u00e2t\u015fi \u00een plan func\u0163ional. Unul dintre domeniile \u00een care reforma trebuie s\u0103 produc\u0103 schimb\u0103ri esen\u0163iale este cel al managementului sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt, \u00een general,\u015fi cel al institu\u0163iei\u015fcolare, \u00een special.\u201d (Emil P\u0103un, 2002, p.11)

Procesul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt este principalul subsistem al sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt \u00een

cadrul c\u0103ruia se realizeaz\u0103 instruirea\u015fi \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103rea elevilor\u015fi studen\u0163ilor prin intermediul activit\u0103\u0163ilor proiectate, organizate\u015fi dirijate de c\u0103tre profesori, \u00een conformitate cu anumite norme\u015fi principii didactice, \u00eentr-un context metodic adecvat, apel\u00e2nd la resurse materiale\u015fi didactice potrivite, \u00een vederea atingerii dezideratelor educa\u0163iei.

Procesul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt reprezint\u0103 dimensiunea dinamic\u0103 a sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt, deoarece \u00een cadrul lui are loc activitatea de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103re iar elevii\u015fi studen\u0163ii sunt \u00eendruma\u0163i de c\u0103tre profesori cum s\u0103 \u00eenve\u0163e. Func\u0163iile generale ale sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt sunt realizate \u00een cadrul procesului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt prin intermediul programelor de instruire formal\u0103 (dar\u015fi nonformal\u0103) structurate\u015fi ierarhizate pe cicluri\u015fi ani de studii.

Procesul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt este subordonat din punct de vedere structural\u015fi func\u0163ional fa\u0163\u0103 de sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt. Dimensiunea opera\u0163ional\u0103 a procesului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt, dependent\u0103 de decizia profesorului, confer\u0103 acestuia un anumit grad de libertate \u00een proiectarea, realizarea\u015fi dezvoltarea curricular\u0103 a instruirii, dinamiz\u00e2nd\u015fi actualiz\u00e2nd permanent sistemul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt. (vezi Gabriela C. Cristea, 2002, p. 109).

Abordarea sistemic\u0103 a procesului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt permite \u201cvalorificarea:

a) raporturilor dintre variabilele independente de cadrul didactic (dependente de finalit\u0103\u0163ile/func\u0163iile\u015fi de structura sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt)\u015fi variabilele dependente exclusiv de cadrele didac-tice (calitatea proiect\u0103rii\u015fi realiz\u0103rii activit\u0103\u0163ilor didactice/educative concrete);

b) principiilor pedagogice generale de proiectare\u015fi de realizare a activit\u0103\u0163ii
didactice/educative (comunicarea\u2013cunoa\u015fterea\u2013creativitatea peda-gogic\u0103);

c) structurilor implicate \u00een proiectarea pedagogic\u0103 a activit\u0103\u0163ii didactice/educative (obiectivele-con\u0163inutul- metodologia-evaluarea procesului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103-m\u00e2nt).\u201d (Sorin Cristea, 2002, p. 339)

Perspectiva static\u0103 de analiz\u0103 a procesului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt vizeaz\u0103 \u201cstructura intern\u0103\u201d a acestuia\u015fi modul cum se intercondi\u0163ioneaz\u0103 componentele \u00eentre ele\u015fi \u201ccum se integreaz\u0103 \u00eentr-un tot func\u0163ional unitar.\u201d Perspectiva dinamic\u0103 prive\u015fte procesul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt ca un sistem \u201cdeschis unui sistem superior (suprasistem), cu o dinamic\u0103 proprie (fluxuri de intrare, \u201cinput\u201d \u2013\u015fi fluxuri de ie\u015fire \u2013 \u201coutput\u201d), cu capacitate de autoreglare.\u201d (vezi Ioan Cerghit, 1988, p. 102)

Schema rela\u0163iei func\u0163ionale dintre sistemul de educa\u0163ie, sistemul se \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt, procesul
de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt:
-
SOCIETATEA cuprinde: c\u00e2mpul de influen\u0163e sociale (economice, politice);
-

SISTEMUL DE EDUCATIE cuprinde\u015fi educa\u0163ia permanent\u0103, institu\u0163ii/organiza\u0163ii eco-nomice, politice, culturale, comunit\u0103\u0163i umane (familie, anturaj, grup profesional, cartierul); educa\u0163ie de tip formal, nonformal\u015fi informal;

-

SISTEMUL DE \u00ceNV\u0102\u0162\u0102M\u00c2NT cuprinde\u015fi institu\u0163ii de educa\u0163ienonformal\u0103 (cluburi, tabere\u015fcolare, centre de preg\u0103tire profesional\u0103, programe de televiziune\u015fcolar\u0103), agen\u0163ii sociali (economici, politici, culturali, religio\u015fi, comunitari, familia);

-
SISTEMUL\u015eCOLAR cuprinde \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2ntul primar, secundar, postliceal,
superior\u015fi special; educa\u0163ie formal\u0103;
-
PROCESUL DE \u00ceNV\u0102\u0162\u0102M\u00c2NT cuprinde activit\u0103\u0163ile didactice/educative;

Reprezent\u00e2nd forma cu \u201ccel mai \u00eenalt nivel de organizare a activit\u0103\u0163ii de instruire\u015fi educa\u0163ie, de modelare a personalit\u0103\u0163ii umane\u201d, procesul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt este \u201cprincipalul mijloc prin care societatea educ\u0103 \u015fi instruie\u015fte tinerele genera\u0163ii\u201d, dar nu unicul, concuren\u0163a mediilor educa\u0163ionale cresc\u00e2nd odat\u0103 cu trecerea timpului\u015fi a acceler\u0103rii ritmurilor de dezvoltare tehnic\u0103 \u015fi informa\u0163ional\u0103. Responsabilitatea organiz\u0103rii\u015fi conducerii acestui \u201cproces progresiv (planificat, sistematic, metodic\u015fi intensiv) de acces la cunoa\u015ftere\u015fi ac\u0163iune, pus sub controlul personalului didactic, bazat pe selec\u0163ionarea

\u015fi structurarea strict\u0103 a con\u0163inuturilor reactivate \u015fi pe efortul personal al elevului\u201d, revine
\u00een mare m\u0103sur\u0103\u015fcolii. (Idem, p. 101)
Func\u0163iile sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt

Analiza sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt presupune nu numai cunoa\u015fterea elementelor componente\u015fi a rela\u0163iilor existente \u00eentre stucturile sale, \u201cprocesualitatea sa intern\u0103\u201d, ci\u015fi considerarea leg\u0103turilor pe care acesta le dezvolt\u0103 cu mediul social-economic\u015fi cultural \u00een care se integreaz\u0103.

Func\u0163iile sistemului de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt se constituie drept propriet\u0103\u0163i esen\u0163iale pentru desf\u0103\u015furarea activit\u0103\u0163ii acestuia \u00een condi\u0163iile raport\u0103rii sale la suprasistem (sistemul de educa\u0163ie, societatea) sau la subsisteme (sistemul\u015fcolar, procesul de \u00eenv\u0103\u0163\u0103m\u00e2nt).

SOCIETATEA
SISTEMUL DE EDUCA\u0162IE
SISTEMUL DE \u00ceNV\u0102\u0162\u0102M\u00c2NT
SISTEMUL\u015eCOLAR
PROCESUL DE
\u00ceNV\u0102
\u0162
\u0102M\u00c2NT

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