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Mihaila - Introduce Re VT an I Sem 1 Didactica=Social=Arta

Mihaila - Introduce Re VT an I Sem 1 Didactica=Social=Arta

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Alexandru Mih\u0103il\u0103
Introducere \u00een Studiul
Vechiului Testament
v. 3.0 \u2013 nov 2006
Observa\u0163ii preliminare

Cuvintele ebraice au fost scrise cu caractere proprii, urmate nu de transliterare, ci depronun\u0163ie. Am procedat astfel pentru c\u0103 exist\u0103 o varietate de sisteme propuse pentru transliterare, diferite nu at\u00e2t \u00een redarea consoanelor fundamentale, ci \u00een gradul de redare a fiec\u0103rui grafem. Astfel, transliterarea poate s\u0103-\u015fi ia forma de la un sistem minimalist (concentrat doar pe consoane, f\u0103r\u0103 diferen\u0163e vocalice) p\u00e2n\u0103 la unul maximalist (care \u00ee\u015fi propune s\u0103 redea integral cantitatea vocalic\u0103

\u015fi
pronun\u0163ia
spirant\u0103
a
consoanelor
corespunz\u0103toare).
Pronun\u0163ia s-a f\u0103cut\u0163in\u00e2nd cont de limba rom\u00e2n\u0103,\u015fi nu de

vreun standard interna\u0163ional. \u00cen redarea pronun\u0163iei nu am urm\u0103rit diferen\u0163ierile dintre litere dec\u00e2t dac\u0103 au un corespondent real \u00een limba rom\u00e2n\u0103. Astfel, consoanele emfatice, care lipsesc \u00een rom\u00e2n\u0103, au fost redate prin corespondentul lor ne-emfatic; la fel consoanele guturale prin echivalentul lor cel mai apropiat, cu excep\u0163ia literelor\u05d0\u015fi\u05e2, care au fost complet ignorate. Cantitatea vocalic\u0103 a fost de asemenea neglijat\u0103. Nu s-a notat dec\u00e2t accentul.

Cuvintele grece\u015fti au fost scrise cu caractere proprii. \u00cen general \u00eens\u0103 sunt redate cu caractere grece\u015fti no\u0163iunile complementare, acestea put\u00e2nd fi trecute cu vederea.

Bibliografie general\u0103
Tabelele c\u0103r\u0163ilor biblice au avut la baz\u0103 urm\u0103toarele
lucr\u0103ri de studiu biblic (germ.Bibelkunde):
Claus Westermann, Abri\u00df der Bibelkunde, Stuttgart131991; Manfred Oeming,
Bibelkunde Altes Testament, Stuttgart 1995; Martin R\u00f6sel, Bibelkunde des Alten
Testaments, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1996; Hellmut Haug, Bibelkunde im \u00dcberblick,
Stuttgart 1997; Matthias Augustin / J\u00fcrgen Kegler, Bibelkunde des Alten
Testament, G\u00fctersloh22000.
Informa\u0163iile de baz\u0103 au fost preluate din urm\u0103toarele
introduceri:
Introducere \u00een Studiul Vechiului Testament
4Childs, Brevard S., Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, London
1979; Paul Nadim Tarazi, The Old Testament. An Introduction, New York I:
1991, II: 1994; III: 1996; Otto Kaiser, Grundri\u00df der Einleitung in die kanonischen
und deuterokanonischen Schriften des Alten Testaments, G\u00fctersloh I: 1992, II:

1994, III: 1994; Werner H. Schmidt, Einf\u00fchrung in das Alte Testament, Berlin/New-York51995; Hans Jochen Boecker\u015f.a., Altes Testament, Neukirchen-Vluyn51996; Erich Zenger et al., Einleitung in das Alte

Testament, Stuttgart etc42001; Vladimir Prelipcean\u015f.a., Studiul Vechiului Testament, pentru Institutele teologice, Bucure\u015fti21985; Petre Semen, A\u015ftept\u00e2nd m\u00e2ntuirea, Ia\u015fi 1999; Petru Sescu (coord.), Introducere \u00een Sf\u00e2nta Scriptur\u0103, Ia\u015fi 2001.

CANONUL VECHIULUI TESTAMENT

Bibliografie: John H. Hayes, An Introduction to Old Testament Study, Nashville 1980; Roger Beckwith, The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church and Its Background in Early Judaism, London 1985.

Canon \u00eenseamn\u0103 lista c\u0103r\u0163ilor normative pentru o comunitate. \u00cen acest sens, cuv\u00e2ntul grecesc canon (\u1f41 \u03ba\u03b1\u03bd\u1ff6\u03bd) a fost folosit de c\u0103tre litera\u0163ii din Alexandria pentru programa

\u015fcolar\u0103 a operelor clasice recomandate pentru studiul literar.

Pentru prima dat\u0103 a fost aplicat c\u0103r\u0163ilor biblice \u00een sec. 4 dHr. Canonul Vechiului Testament desemneaz\u0103 lista c\u0103r\u0163ilor vechi- testamentare considerate regul\u0103 a credin\u0163ei.

Comunit\u0103\u0163ile religioase care au primit VT sau o parte a sa ca norm\u0103 a credin\u0163ei au fost foarte variate, prin urmare\u015fi canonul VT folosit de aceste comunit\u0103\u0163i a prezentat diverse forme. Dintre acestea amintim:

1. canonul samaritean.
2. canonul de la Qumran.
3. canonul ebraic (identic este\u015fi cel protestant)
4. canonul Septuagintei
5. canonul Bisericii romano-catolice
6. canonul Bisericii Ortodoxe

Alexandru Mih\u0103il\u0103
5
Canonul samaritean\u015fi canonul de la Qumran
Comunitatea samaritean\u0103, rupt\u0103 definitiv de iudaism \u00een
sec. 2 \u00eedHr., recuno\u015ftea doar autoritatea Pentateuhului.

\u00cen canonul de la Qumran sunt incluse c\u0103r\u0163i apocrife (1 Enoh, Cartea Jubileelor etc.)\u015fi produc\u0163ii literare proprii comunit\u0103\u0163ii; c\u0103r\u0163ile din categoriaScrieri (cf. canonul ebraic

infra) nu sunt bine definitivate, dup\u0103 cum o dovede\u015fte o
Psaltire g\u0103sit\u0103 \u00een grota a 11-a, care con\u0163ine 41 de psalmi biblici
(cu modific\u0103ri\u015fi aranja\u0163i \u00een alt\u0103 ordine)\u015fi 8 nebiblici.
Canonul ebraic

Canonul ebraic cuprinde 24 de c\u0103r\u0163i, num\u0103rul fiind men\u0163ionat pentru prima dat\u0103 \u00een apocrifa4Ezra 14:45 (II jum\u0103tate a sec. 2 dHr.)\u015fi \u00een Talmud (tratatul Baba batra), devenind tradi\u0163ia general\u0103 iudaic\u0103.

Iosif Flaviu (Contra lui Apion 1:8) men\u0163ioneaz\u0103 22 de c\u0103r\u0163i
(dup\u0103 num\u0103rul literelor ebraice), unindJud. cuRut\u015fiIer. cu
Pl\u00e2ng.; este singurul din mediul iudaic care vorbe\u015fte de 22 de
c\u0103r\u0163i, ideea fiind preluat\u0103 \u015fi transmis\u0103 ulterior doar de
scriitorii cre\u015ftini.
Dac\u0103 num\u0103r\u0103m fiecare carte \u00een parte dintre cele duble\u015fi
pe cele ale profe\u0163ilor mici se ob\u0163in 39 de c\u0103r\u0163i.

\u00cen sec. 1 dHr. au existat dispute rabinice privind canonicitatea a 5 c\u0103r\u0163i:Iez.,Pl\u00e2ng.,Eccl.,C\u00e2nt.\u015fiEst, care s-au \u00eencheiat cu sinodul de la Yabne/Iamnia din 90 dHr.

Canonul Septuagintei
De\u015fi tradus\u0103 de c\u0103tre iudei, Septuaginta a fost ulterior
abandonat\u0103 de c\u0103tre iudaism. \u00cen forma actual\u0103, ea cuprinde 53
Introducere \u00een Studiul Vechiului Testament
6de c\u0103r\u0163i\u015fi prezint\u0103 influen\u0163e cre\u015ftine, av\u00e2nd inclus\u0103 cartea
Odelor, un florilegiu de rug\u0103ciuni format din fragmente biblice

at\u00e2t din VT, c\u00e2t\u015fi din NT (cf.Oda 9 = c\u00e2ntarea MarieiLuc. 1:46- 55 + c\u00e2ntarea lui ZahariaLuc. 1:68-79;Oda 13 = c\u00e2ntarea b\u0103tr\u00e2nului SimeonLuc. 2:29-32;Oda 14 = imnul doxologic de la Utrenie).

Opinia dup\u0103 care Septuaginta reprezint\u0103 canonul biblic al iudaismului alexandrin, spre diferen\u0163\u0103 de Textul masoretic care reprezint\u0103 canonul iudaismului palestinian, nu mai este de actualitate.

Ordinea \u00een canonul ebraic\u015fi cel al
Septuagintei
Canonul MT
I.\u05d4\u05b8
\u05e8\ufb4b\ufb4a \u2013t or\u00e1 (\u201eLegea\u201d =
Pentateuhul)
1. \u05ea\u05d9 \u05b4
\ufb2a\u05d0 \u05b5
\u05e8\u05b0
\ufb31 \u2013bere\u015f\u00edt (\u201ela \u00eenceput\u201d)
2.\u05ea\ufb4b\u05de \u05b5
\ufb2a\u2013\u015fem\u00f3t(\u201enumele\u201d)
3.\u05d0\u05b8
\u05e8\u05b0
\u05e7\u05b4
\ufb39\u05b7
\u05d5\u2013vaicr\u00e1 (\u201e\u015fi a spus\u201d)
4.\u05e8 \u05b8
\ufb31\u05b0
\u05d3\u05b4
\u05de\u05b0
\ufb31 \u2013bemidb\u00e1r (\u201e\u00een pustiu\u201d)
5. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05e8\u05b8
\u05d1\u05b0
\ufb33 \u2013de var\u00edm (\u201eCuvintele\u201d =
Deuteronomul)
II.a.
\u05b4
\u05d0\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05d1\u05b0
\u05e0
\u05dd\u05d9
\u05dd\u05d9\u05b4
\u05e0\u05b9
\ufb2a\u05d0 \u05b4
\u05e8
\u2013 nevi\u00edm ri\u015fon \u00edm
(\u201eProfe\u0163ii anteriori\u201d)
6.\u05b7
\u05e2\ufb35\ufb2a\ufb4b\u05d4\u05b0
\u05d9\u2013 I eh o\u015f\u00faa
7. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05d8\u05b0
\u05e4\u05b9
\ufb2a \u2013\u015fofet\u00edm ( J u d e c\u0103 tori)
8.\u05dc \u05b5
\u05d0\ufb35\u05de \u05b0
\ufb2a \u2013\u015eemu\u00e9l (Samuel = 1-2
Regi)
9. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05db\u05b8
\u05dc\u05b0
\u05de \u2013melah \u00edm (Regi = 3-4
Regi)
II.b.\u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05e0\u05b9
\u05e8\u05b2
\u05d7\u05b7
\u05d0 \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05d0\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05d1\u05b0
\u05e0\u2013 nev i\u00edm
Canonul LXX (cu siglele Bibliei
sinodale)
I. Legea

1.\u0393\u1f73\u03bd\u03b5\u03c3\u03b9\u03c2 (= Facerea)Fac.
2.\u1f1c\u03be\u03bf\u03b4\u03bf\u03c2 (= Ie\u015firea)Ie\u015f.
3.\u039b\u03b5\u03c5\u03b9\u03c4\u03b9\u03ba\u1f79\u03bd (= Leviticul)Lev.

4.\u1f08\u03c1\u03b9\u03b8\u03bc\u03bf\u1f77 (= Numeri)Num.
5.\u2206\u03b5\u03c5\u03c4\u03b5\u03c1\u03bf\u03bd\u1f79\u03bc\u03b9\u03bf\u03bd (=
Deuteronomul)Deut.
II. C\u0103r\u0163i istorice

6.\u1f38\u03b7\u03c3\u03bf\u1fe6\u03c2 (= Iosua)Iosua
7.\u039a\u03c1\u03b9\u03c4\u03b1\u1fd6 (= Judec\u0103tori)J ud.
8.\u1fec\u03bf\u03c5\u03b8 (= Rut)R ut
9. \u0392\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u03bb\u03b5\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b1\u0374 (= 1 Regi)1Reg.
10. \u0392\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u03bb\u03b5\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b2\u0374 (= 2 Regi)2Reg.
11. \u0392\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u03bb\u03b5\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b3\u0374 (= 3 Regi)3Reg.
12. \u0392\u03b1\u03c3\u03b9\u03bb\u03b5\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b4\u0374 (= 4 Regi)4Reg.
13. \u03a0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b1\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c0\u1f79\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03b1\u0374 (=

1Paralipomena)1Paral.
Alexandru Mih\u0103il\u0103
7
aharon\u00edm(\u201eProfe\u0163 ii
posteriori\u201d)
10.
\u05b7
\ufb2a\u05b0
\u05d9
\ufb35\u05d4\u05b8
\u05d9\u05b0
\u05e2\u2013 Ie\u015fa i \u00e1 h u
11.\ufb35\u05d4 \u05b8
\u05d9\u05b0
\u05de\u05b0
\u05e8\u05b4
\u05d9\u2013 I rm e i \u00e1 h u
12. \u05dc\u05d0 \u05b5
\u05e7\u05b0
\u05d6\u05b6
\u05d7\u05b0
\u05d9\u2013Iehezch\u00e9l
13. Ter\u0113y\u02bf\u0101\u015b\u0101r (cei 12 profe\u0163i mici)
\u05b7
\u05e2\u05b5
\ufb2a\u05b9
\u05d4 \u2013Ho\u015f\u00e9a ( Os e a )
\u05dc\u05b5
\u05d0\ufb4b\u05d9\u2013Io\u00e9l
\u05e1\ufb4b\u05de\u05b8
\u05e2\u2013 A m\u00f3s
\u05d4\u05b8
\u05d9\u05b0
\u05d3\u05b7
\u05d1\u05b9
\u05e2\u2013 Ovad\u00eda
\u05d4\u05b8
\u05e0\ufb4b\u05d9\u2013Ion\u00e1
\u05d4\u05b8
\u05db\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05de\u2013Mih\u00e1
\u05dd\ufb35\u05d7\u05b7
\u05e0\u2013 N ah\u00fam
\u05b7
\u05d1\u05b2
\u05d7
\u05e7\ufb35\ufb47\u2013 H av ac\u00fac
\u05d4\u05b8
\u05d9\u05b4
\u05e0\u05b7
\u05e4\u05b0
\u05e6\u2013\u0162efan\u00eda
\u05d9\u05b7
\ufb32\u05b7
\u05d7\u2013 Hag\u00e1i
\u05d4\u05b8
\u05d9\u05b0
\u05e8\u05b7
\u05db\u05b0
\u05d6\u2013 Zehar\u00eda
\u05d9\u05b4
\u05db\u05b8
\u05d0\u05b0
\u05dc\u05b7
\u05de\u2013Malah\u00ed
III. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05d1\ufb35\u05ea \u05b0
\ufb3b\u2013chetuv\u00edm (\u201eScrierile\u201d)
14. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\ufb3c\u05b4
\u05d4\u05b0
\ufb4a \u2013tehil\u00edm (Psalmii)
15. \u05d1\ufb4b\ufb39 \u05b4
\u05d0\u2013 Iov
16.\u05d9 \u05b5
\u05dc\u05b0
\ufb2a\u05b4
\u05de \u2013mi\u015fl\u00e9 (Pilde)
\u05ea\ufb4b\ufb3c\u05b4
\u05d2\u05b0
\u05de \u2013megh il\u00f3 t ( 5 suluri festive):
17.\u05ea\ufb35\u05e8\u2013 Rut
18. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05e8\u05d9 \u05b4
\ufb2c\u05b7
\u05d4 \u05e8\u05d9 \u05b4
\ufb2a\u2013\u015fir ha\u015fir\u00edm
(C\u00e2ntarea c\u00e2nt\u0103rilor)
19.\u05ea \u05b6
\u05dc\u05b6
\u05d4\u05b9
\u05e7 \u2013coh\u00e9let ( Ec c l e s ia s tu l )
20.\u05d4 \u05b8
\u05db\u05d9 \u05b5
\u05d0 \u2013eh \u00e1 (\u201ecum\u201d = Pl\u00e2ngerile)
21.\u05e8 \u05b5
\u05ea\u05b0
\u05e1\u05b6
\u05d0\u2013 Est\u00e9r
22.\u05dc\u05d0 \u05b5
\ufb39\u05b4
\u05e0\u05b8
\ufb33 \u2013Dani\u00e9l (Daniel)
23.\u05d0\u05b8
\u05e8\u05b0
\u05d6\u05b6
\u05e2 \u2013Ezr\u00e1\u015fi \u05d4\u05b8
\u05d9\u05b0
\u05de\u05b6
\u05d7\u05b0
\u05e0\u2013 Ne he m\u00eda
(Ezdra\u015fi Neemia)
24. \u05dd\u05d9 \u05b4
\u05de\u05b8
\ufb39\u05b7
\u05d4\u05d9\u05b5
\u05e8\u05b0
\u05d1\u05b4
\ufb33\u2013 div r\u00e9 haiam\u00edm
(\u201eCuvintele zilelor\u201d =
Cronici = Paralipomena)
14. \u03a0\u03b1\u03c1\u03b1\u03bb\u03b5\u03b9\u03c0\u1f79\u03bc\u03b5\u03bd\u03bf\u03bd \u03b2\u0374 (=

2Paralipomena)2Paral.
15. \u1f1c\u03c3\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2 \u03b1\u0374 (= 3 Ezdra)3Ezd.
16. \u1f1c\u03c3\u03b4\u03c1\u03b1\u03c2 \u03b2\u0374 (= Ezdra\u015fi Neemia)

1Ezd.+ Neem.

17.\u1f18\u03c3\u03b8\u1fc6\u03c1 (= Estera)Es t.
18.\u1f38\u03bf\u03c5\u03b4\u1f77\u03b8 (= Iudita)Iudit.
19.\u03a4\u03c9\u03b2\u1f77\u03c4 (= Tobit)Tob.
20. \u039c\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b1\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b1\u0374 (= 1 Macabei)

1Mac.
21. \u039c\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b1\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b2\u0374 (= 2 Macabei)
2Mac.
22. \u039c\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b1\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b3\u0374 (= 3 Macabei)
3Mac.
23. \u039c\u03b1\u03ba\u03ba\u03b1\u03b2\u03b1\u1f77\u03c9\u03bd \u03b4\u0374 (= 4 Macabei)

III. C\u0103r\u0163i poetice
24.\u03a8\u03b1\u03bb\u03bc\u03bf\u1f77 (= Psalmi +Ps. 151)Ps.
25.\u1fa8\u03b4\u03b1\u1f77 (= Ode)
26.\u03a0\u03b1\u03c1\u03bf\u03b9\u03bc\u1f77\u03b1\u03b9 (= Pilde)Pild.
27.\u1f18\u03ba\u03ba\u03bb\u03b7\u03c3\u03b9\u03b1\u03c3\u03c4\u1f75\u03c2 (= Ecclesiastul)

Eccl.
28.\u1f8e\u03c3\u03bc\u03b1 (= C\u00e2ntarea c\u00e2nt\u0103rilor)
C\u00e2nt.
29.\u1f38\u1f7d\u03b2 (= Iov)Iov
30. \u03a3\u03bf\u03c6\u1f77\u03b1 \u03a3\u03b1\u03bb\u03c9\u03bc\u1f7d\u03bd\u03bf\u03c2 (=\u00cen\u0163el lui
Solomon)\u00cen\u0163el.
31. \u03a3\u03bf\u03c6\u1f77\u03b1 \u03a3\u03b9\u03c1\u03b1\u03c7 (= \u00cen\u0163elepciunea
lui Isus, fiul lui Sirah)Sir.
32. \u03a8\u03b1\u03bb\u03bc\u03bf\u1f76 \u03a3\u03bf\u03bb\u03bf\u03bc\u1f7d\u03bd\u03c4\u03bf\u03c2 (= Psalmii
lui Solomon)

III. C\u0103r\u0163i profetice
33.\u2126\u03c3\u03b7\u03b5 (= Osea)Os.
34.\u1f08\u03bc\u1f7d\u03c2 (= Amos)Am.
35.\u039c\u03b9\u03c7\u03b1\u1f77\u03b1\u03c2 (= Miheia)Mih.
36.\u1f38\u03c9\u03b7\u03bb (= Ioil)I oil
37.\u1f08\u03b2\u03b4\u1f77\u03bf\u03c5 (= Avdie)A vd.
38.\u1f38\u03c9\u03bd\u03b1\u03c2 (= Iona)Iona
39.\u039d\u03b1\u03bf\u1f7b\u03bc (= Naum)Naum
40.\u1f08\u03bc\u03b2\u03b1\u03ba\u03bf\u03c5\u03bc (= Avacum)Avac.
41.\u03a3\u03bf\u03c6\u03bf\u03bd\u1f77\u03b1\u03c2 (= Sofonie)Sof.

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