Extracted from a presentation “Evaluationof the effect of heating an oil emulsionPasteurella multocida bacterin on tissuereaction and immunity.”Karen E. Burns,Jaime Ruiz,and John R.Glisson. Poultry Diagnostic and ResearchCenter,University of Georgia. Presented at AAAP,2001 Boston.
Oil emulsion inactivated vaccines are criticalcomponents of vaccination programs for long-lived birds,i.e. breeders,layers and turkeys.These vaccines provide a long duration of immunity and improve antibody response forbreeders in order to provide protective mater-nal antibodies to progeny.Common injection sites include subcutaneous-ly (S.Q.) in the back of the neck,ventral sideof the tail,and intramuscularly (I.M.) in thebreast,thigh,or leg. However,there are inher-ent problems in all of the above vaccinationtechniques. For example,the S.Q. neck injec-tion offers the highest risk for accidentalhuman injection,a medical emergency.Commonly,a deeper injection into the musclesof the neck occurs,resulting in pain,feedrefusal,and cull birds.Oil emulsion bacterins tend to be the mostreactive when injected into the muscle. The tis-sue reaction can result in a greater incidence of condemnations at processing,further decreas-ing the low monetary return from spent hens.In order to examine a field solution to theproblem of I.M. injection reaction,a simpleinvestigation was completed at the Universityof Georgia to determine if heating the vaccinewould reduce the reaction in the breast muscle.Personal communication from an industry vac-cination crew indicated that they were heatingan oil emulsion bacterin in a water bath priorto I.M. injection into the breast. It is knownthat heating an oil emulsion decreases the vis-cosity of the vaccine. In theory,by adjustingthe vaccine closer to the birds’body tempera-ture,the vaccine may be less likely to leave alesion at processing,possibly because of morerapid absorption of the vaccine. Comparingthe heated vaccine to room temperature vac-cine allowed evaluation of a commonly usedfield technique and label recommendation.
Materials and Methods
The study used a commercially prepared
bacterin containing serotypes 1,3,and 4 from the same serial and lot,refrigerateduntil use. The heat treatment was performedby placing the bottle in a microbiologicalincubator set to 41 C (105
F) for five hoursbefore vaccination. The vaccine was placed
A LOHMANN ANIMAL HEALTH NEWS BRIEF
Warming oil emulsion bacterins prior to injection
continued on page 2Warming oil emulsion bacterins prior to injection . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From the president . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In this issue of avian insight:
Karen E. Burns, D.V.M,M.A.M,diplomate A.C.P.V Technical ServicesVeterinarian Lohmann Animal HealthGainesville,GA
Lesion in neck muscle of breeder pullet following improper injection technique of an oil emulsion vaccine Right and Left indicate side of the breast muscle where injection occurred.Groups were divided at 24 weeks, 1/2 challenge and 1/2 lesion scored.
# ofGroupBirds10 week18 week24 week
HeatedVaccineRoom TempVaccineControls505050Vaccination - RightSerologyVaccination - RightSerologySerology OnlyVaccination – LeftSerologyVaccination – LeftSerologySerology OnlyChallenge & Serology (25 birds)Lesion Score (25)Challenge & Serology (25 birds)Lesion Score (25)Challenge & Serology (25 birds)Lesion Score (25)
Table 1:Study Organization
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