in behalf of Massachusetts, for which representation, he also signed the Articles of Confederation. He continued to serve as the first President of the United States in its body politicas a Confederacy,
until October 29, 1777
, born on March 6, 1724 in Charleston of South Carolina,was a signer of the Articles of Confederation for South Carolina, and served as the secondPresident of the Confederacy of the United States from
November 1, 1777 until December 9,1778
. Henry Laurens stepped down to take an ambassadorship to the Netherlands, and wascaptured by the British while en route. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London until prisonerexchanged weeks after the October 19, 1781 end to the battle of Yorktown (which battle beganon September 29, 1781).3.
, born on December 12, 1745 in New York of New York, became thethird President of the Confederacy of the United States of America from
December 10, 1777until September 27, 1779
. He neither signed the Declaration of Independence, nor the Articlesof Confederation, nor the US Constitution, because he did not serve in that State capacity of representation at the time those documents were signed. However, because of the depth of hisinfluences and participations, he is also a "Founding Father" of this nation, and his time spent asPresident of the United States, even though a Confederacy at the time, affirms his place as aFounding Father of this nation, the Republic of the United States of America.After serving as this nation's third de facto and de jure President, John Jay would find himself asambassador to Spain, the Secretary of State in July of 1784, and finally Chief Justice of theSupreme Court of the (new) Republic of the United States of America in 1789 as appointed byGeorge Washington. In his brief tenure as Chief Justice, among his most notable decisions wasthat of
Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 US 419 (1793)
was approved by Congress on March 4, 1794 and ratified on February 7,1795, and reads:
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law orequity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
Although the amendment was challenged, including over that it was not signed by the President --
Hollingsworth v. Virginia, 3 U.S. 3 Dall. 378 (1798)
-- the Amendment challenges wererejected by the US Supreme Court. It reads (in blue):