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Full Control of a PWM DC AC Converter for AC Voltage Regulation

Full Control of a PWM DC AC Converter for AC Voltage Regulation

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I.
INTRODUCTION
Full Control
of
a
PWM
DC-ACConverter for AC VoltageRegulation
YING-W
TZOU,
Member, IEEE
SHIH-LUNG
JUNG,
Student, IEEENational Chiao Tung UniversityTaiwan
The design and implement action of a DSP-based fullydigital-controlled single-phase pulsewidth modulated (PWM)dc-ac converter for ac voltage regulation
is
described. Theproposed multiloop digital controller
(MDC)
consists of a currentcontroller, a voltage controller, and a feedforward controller. This
MDC
was realized using a single-chip digital signal processor(DSP). The PWM gating signals are determined at every samplinginstant by the proposed multiloop digital control scheme using
a
set of detected feedback signals.
A
software current controlscheme
has
been developed to achieve fast current control of thePWM inverter and decouple the inductor of the output filter.Experimental results have been given to verify the proposeddigital control scheme. The constructed DSP-based PWM dc-acconverter system
can
achieve fast dynamic response and with lowtotal harmonic distortion (THD) for rectifier type of loads.
Manuscript received March
22,
1997; revised January 20, 1998.IEEE Log NO. TAESl3414/07977.This work was supported by National Science Council, Taipei,Taiwan,
R.O.C.
Project no. NSC84-0404-E-009-085.Authors’ address: Dept.
of
Electrical and Control Engineering,National Chiao Tung University,
No.
1001, Ta Hsueh Rd., Hsinchu300, Taiwan.0018-9251/98/$10.00
@
1998 IEEE
In recent years, closed-loop regulated pulsewidthmodulated (PWM) dc-ac converters have foundtheir wide applications in various types of ac powerconditioning systems, such as automatic voltageregulator (AVR) systems, uninterruptible powersupply
(UPS)
systems, and programmable ac source(PAS) systems. In these applications, the PWM dc-acconverters are required to maintain a sinusoidal outputwaveform under various types of loads and this canonly be achieved by employing feedback controltechnique.To minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD)in the output voltage, selected harmonic elimination
PWM
and programmed PWM techniques have beenused to regulate the fundamental amplitude andeliminate low-order harmonics
[
1, 21.
However,these kinds of control techniques cannot meet thestringent requirements of modern high-performanceac power conditioning systems. Therefore, closed-loopregulation of
PWM
inverters becomes an importantissue in application of high performance ac powerconditioning systems.control schemes for the PWM inverter withinstantaneous feedback by using analog techniqueshave been proposed to achieve both good dynamicresponse and low harmonic distortion
[3,
41.
Theinstantaneous feedback control with adaptivehysteresis regulates the PWM inverter with directcurrent and voltage feedback
[5,
61.
This controlscheme changes the hysteresis width as a function ofthe voltage reference, but its dynamic responses tolarge load change or rectifier types of load are leftunsolved. Instantaneous voltage feedback with aninner current loop was also developed for the controlof PWM inverters.control schemes are predominantly used incompensator design of power converters, thereare several drawbacks that hinder the performanceof analog controllers, such as temperature drift,aging effect, complexity in component adjustment,and susceptibility to electromagnetic interference(EMI). With the rapid progress in microelectronicstechnology, digital control of power converters using
advanced
microcontroller and digital signal processor(DSP) becomes an active research area
[7, 91.
Microprocessor-based deadbeat control techniquehas been applied to the closed-loop regulationof PWM inverters for
UPS
applications
[lo,
111.
Deadbeat control scheme has the disadvantages
of
highly sensitive to parameter and load variations andrequiring large peak-to-average ratio of control signalsto achieve dead beat effect. Recently, discrete slidingmode control (DSMC) technique has been developedfor the regulation of PWM inverters
[
121.
The mainDuring the past several years, various closed-loopAlthough frequency-domain-based analog
1218 IEEE TRANSACTIONS
ON
AEROSPACE
AND
ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
VOL.
34, NO. 4 OCTOBER 1998
 
advantage of the DSMC scheme is its insensitivityto parameter variations and load disturbances, whichleads
to
invariant steady-state response in the idealcase, while its disadvantages are that it is not easy tofind an appropriate sliding surface and its performancewill be degraded with a limited sampling rate.With the availability of 16-bit high-performanceDSP chips, most of its instructions can beaccomplished in one instruction cycle and complicatedcontrol algorithms can be executed with fast speed.This work describes the design and implementationof a DSP-based fully digital-controlled single-phasePWM inverter for ac voltage regulation. The proposeddigital controlled PWM inverter system employs asingle-chip DSP to realize a multiloop control schemewith sinusoidal reference. The PWM gating signalsare determined at every sampling instant by theproposed multiloop digital control scheme using a setof detected feedback signals.There has been some research on the digitalcontrol of PWM inverters for ac voltage regulation,but theoretical analysis and realization of thedigital controller still need further study. This workproposes a multiloop digital control scheme for theclosed-loop regulation
of
PWM inverters used forhigh-performance UPS and AVR systems. Section
I1
makes an analysis of the dynamic behavior of thedc-ac converter of an ac voltage regulator. Section
I11
introduces the proposed multiloop control schemefor the closed-loop regulation of a PWM inverter.Section IV describes the implementation of the digitalcontroller using a single-chip DSP. Section IV givessome simulation and experimental results to verify theproposed multiloop digital control strategy. Section Vis the conclusion.
II.
DYNAMIC
ANALYSIS
OF
DC-AC CONVERTERSA.
DSP
Control
of
a
PWM DC-AC ConverterThe dc-ac converter used in an UPS/AVR systemusually consists of a pulsewidth modulated H-bridgeinverter and an
LC
filter. The block diagram of theproposed DSP-controlled dc-ac converter used for acvoltage regulation is shown in Fig. 1, where the dc-acconverter and the connected load is considered as theplant
of
a closed-loop digital feedback system. TheDSP controls the inverter switches
so
that the outputvoltage can track the sinusoidal reference at eachsampling instant. In the proposed system, the inductorcurrent and the output voltage are sensed as feedbackvariables, and the control algorithm computes therequired pulsewidth for the dc-ac converter.There are many consideration factors in theselection. of a microprocessor in the design of a digitalcontrol system. After a thorough consideration ofperformance, price, simplicity in hardware design,and software support, we choose a single-chip DSP
DC-AC
CONVERTER
,___________________------------.---..-
PWM INVERTER LCFILTER LOAD
Lr,
ii
:
.
I__._______..____.__.-.-..----.--
--__---
f
to)
t;.iti
a
320614 DSP-Based DC-AC Converter Controller
Fig.
1. DSP-based digital control
of
a dc-ac converter
for
ac
voltage regulation.
(TMS320C 14) from Texas Instruments to realize thedigital controller for ac voltage regulation [13]. TheTMS320C14 has many good features, which make ita good candidate to realize digital control for powerconverting systems, such as multiple independentprogrammable timers, 160 ns instruction cycle, 16-bitparallel multiplier, and on-chip RAM and ROM, etc.
B.
Modeling
of
DC-AC ConverterIn this work, we present a control strategy basedon linear system theory. However, the dc-ac converterconcerned here is a nonlinear system by naturedue to the existence of the solid-state switches. Anonlinear system must be first linearized around itsoperating point before the linear controller can bedesigned. The performance of the controlled systemin the neighborhood of that operating point can beguaranteed if the designed controller is robust enough.The wider the bandwidth of the system, the larger theneighborhood. Here, a nominal resistive load is set
as
the operating point for linearization.Fig. 2(a) shows the equivalent circuit of a dc-acconverter with connected load. The dc-ac convertersystem shown inFig.
1 
is a discrete nonlinear system.
A
linear sampled-data model was developed forthe analysis and synthesis of a discrete dead beatcontroller
[
141. Essentially, a digital-controlled powerconverting system
is
a multirate digital control systembecause there are two frequency components: one isthe sampling frequency of the digital controller, andthe other is the switching frequency of the powerconverter.In the past, because of the limited computationspeed of available microprocessors, the samplingfrequency is much lower than the switching frequency.This hinders and hesitates the application of digitalcontrol techniques to the power converting systems,especially in the
area
of
the dc andor
ac
powersupplies. However, the switching frequency of apower converting system is still limited due to theirreducible switching losses of the power devices andmagnetic cores. But in the mean time, there is a great
TZOU
&
JUNG: FULL CONTROL OF A
PWM
DC-AC CONVERTER FOR AC VOLTAGE REGULATION
1219
 
-1SdSl
-
I
id
(b)
Fig.
2.
Modeling
of
a dc-ac converter.
(a)
Equivalent circuit.
(b)
Block diagram representation.
improvement in the performance of microprocessorsand digital control integrated circuits (ICs)
[
151.
With the recently developed high-performance DSP,realization
of
digital controllers with higher samplingrate becomes possible and this makes the samplingfrequency gradually approach the switching frequencyof a digital-controlled power converting system.The dynamics of a dc-ac converter is mainlydetermined by the
LC
filter and connected load. Thecomplexity in the modeling and control of a dc-acconverter used for
UPS
applications comes from theconnected load. The load connected to an
UPS
systemmay be nonlinear, periodically switched, regenerative,highly inductive, or time varying. Because of thediversity of these loads, it is not possible to formulatea general model to cover every kind of load. However,we can define a load as a nominal operating conditionpoint to derive its linear model and consider the loadvariations and model uncertainties as a specifiedload disturbance. The
LC
filter with a nominalresistive load can be modeled as a continuous timesecond-order system with state variables
vc
and
i
output load voltage
vo
and input voltage
vu,
whichtakes three values
0.5&,,
0.5&,,
or zero. Considerthe inductor equivalent series resistance
(ESR)
rL
and capacitor
ESR
rc,
the state equation and outputequation become
1
+[;]vu
The transfer function of the inverter output voltage
vu
to the filter output voltage
vo
is
(3)
Ob)
-
b,s+b,
VJS)
a2s2
+
als
+
a0
G,(s)
=
-
where
b,
=
rcRC,
bo
=
R,
a2
=
(R
+
rc)LC,
a,
=
L
+
(rL
+
r,)RC
+
rLrcC,
and
a.
=
rL
+
R.
The open-loopoutput impedance is defined as
vo(s)
-
rcLCs2
+
(rcrLC
+
L)S
+
rL
z0(s)
LCS~
(r,
+
rc)Cs
+
1
Z0(S)
=
-
(4)
It can be observed from
(3)
that the capacitor
ESR
rc
will introduce a zero located at
z,
=
--I/r,C.
This left-half plane zero compared with the naturalresonant pole of the
LC
filter located at
po
=
-1/mhas a ratio of
(5)
The capacitor
ESR
rc
is usually very small and thiszero is high above the resonant frequency of the
LC
tank.
If
the
ESRs
of
the
LC
filter are small enoughand can be neglected,
(1)
and (2) can be simplified as
[
-
(7)
and
(3)
and
(4)
can also be reduced as
vo(s)
-
Ls
+
1
ZO(S)
=
-
_I_
I&)
LCs2
+
1
(9)
The modeling of a digital-controlled
PWM
dc-acconverter can be represented by a block diagram asshown in Fig. 2(b).
As
shown in Fig. 2(b), there is
a
discrete duty ratio
d(k)
applied to a PWM modulator.The
d(k)
is determined at every sampling interval
To
from a digital controller. The PWM modulatorgenerates the PWM gating signals according to amodulation strategy.
A
variety of
PWM
methodshave been developed to reduce both the switchinglosses and current ripples [16]. The digital unipolarPWM method as shown inFig.
3 
has characteristicsof minimum current ripple and simple switchingmechanism and is adopted here for the generation
of
the PWM switching patterns.
1220
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL.
34,
NO.
4
OCTOBER
1998

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