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Modelling and Simulation of Diesel Electrical Aggregate Voltage Controller With Current Sink

Modelling and Simulation of Diesel Electrical Aggregate Voltage Controller With Current Sink

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P ro c e e d in g so f T h e
IE E EIn te rn a tio n a l C o n fe re n c e
on Industrial Technology,1 9 9 6
M O D E L L IN GA N D S IM U L A T IO NO F D IE S E L E L E C T R IC A L A G G R E G A T E
V O L T A G E C O N T R O L L E R W IT H C U R R E N T S IN K
G .E rceg, IE E E M em ber
D e p a rtm e n t of E le c tric M a c h in e s a n d A u to m a tio n
F a c u l t y o f \u2019 E l e c t r i c a 1E n g i n e e r i n g a n d C o m p u t i n g
U n iv ersityo f Z a g re b , Z a g re b , C ro a tia
A bsiract-I nth e p a p e r m o d e lin g a n d s im u la tio n o f d ie s e l m o to r
w ith speed control system and generator w ith V oltage system as
c o m p le x , n o n lin e a r
a n d
m u ltiv a ria b le
system s are presented.
M a th e m a tic a l
m o d e ls
fo r
e v e ry
p a r t
o f
d ie s e l
e le c tric a l
a g g re g a te
(d ie s e l
m o to r
w ith
i t s
s p e e d
c o n tro l
system ,
s y n c h ro n o u s
g e n e ra to r,
s y n c h ro n o u s
e x c ite r,

s e lf-e x c ite d c o m p o u n d in g u n it, v o lta g e c o n tro lle r a n d lo a d ) a r e d e v e lo p e d a n d

c o n n e c te d
i n
com m on
m odel of
aggregate. Upon
th e s e
m a th e m a tic a l
m o d e ls
o f
th e
a g g re g a te ,
sim u latio n
m o d e l is
m a d e u s in g \u201c M a trix X ))s im u la tio n s o ftw a re p a c k a g e .
T he
paper also
d e a ls w ith
c o m p a ra tio n
o f
c h a ra c te ris tic s
seen from
th e s im u la tio n a s p e c t a n d

m easurem ents. B ringing in to a m o d e l n e w c u r r e n t s in k , s im u la tio n re s u lts b e tte r m a tc h e x p e rim e n ta l re s u lts .S o ,th is m o d e l is p riv ile g e d f o r s e le c tio n

o f d ie s e l e le c tric a l a g g re g a te \u2019s ty p e a n d fo r a n a ly z in g q u a lity o f
lo a d s u p p ly in g .
K eyw ords
-D ieselA g g re g a te ,
M o d e lin g ,S u n u la tio n ,Is o la te d
System .
I .
IN T R O D U C T IO N
D iesel
e le c tric a l
a g g re g a te s
u s u a lly
s u p p lie s

is o la te d system s, or acts as a reserve pow er suppliers. Such system s are characterized w ith the fact that aggregate\u2019s power fits alm ost equally the pow er of installed loads. Procedure of sw itching bigger loads in such system s causes considerable d y n a m ic c h a n g e s in a m p litu d e a n d s e ttlin g tim e of v o lta g e a n d fre q u e n c y . C o n s id e rin g q u a lity o f s u p p lie d lo a d , know n characteristic appeared in transient process during loading a n d /o r u n lo a d in go f aggregate result w ith proper choice of diesel electrical aggregate\u2019s type.

In v e s tig a tio n
o f
d ie s e l
e le c tric a l
a g g re g a te s
b e h a v io r
re q u ire s
u s a g e
o f
m odern
te c h n iq u e s
i n

m a th e m a tic a l modeling and sim ulation studies, and also carrying outo f m easurem ents.

11. M A T H E M A T IC A L M O D E LO FD IE S E L
E L E C T R IC A L A G G R E G A T E
Principle schem eo f diesel electricalaggregatei s show n in
F ig .1 .A ggregate is equipped w ith generator w ltage control
system and diesel m otor speed governing system . G enerator
excitation system
is realized using
brushless synchronous
e x c ite r a n d c o m p o u n d in g u n it. B e sid e s th e m a in g e n e ra to r
S .T e S n ja k , C IG R l? M e m b e r
R .E rceg,E E E StudentM em ber
D e p a rtm e n t of E le c tric P o w er E n g in e e rin g
F a c u lty o f E le c tric a l E n g in e e rin g a n d C o m p u tin g
U niversity of Zagreb,Zagreb C roatia
voltage feedback loop, the internal feedback loop is provided
u s in g
e x c ita tio n
c u rre n t
o f
e x c ite r.. S e lfe x c ite d
c o m p o u n d in g u n it o p e ra te sa s
a

current supplier, alw ays g iv in g m o re c u rre n tt h a nth e e x c ita tio no f th e e x c ite r n e e d s. G e n e ra to r v o lta g e c o n tro l sy ste m isb a s e du p o n p e rfo rm s o n p rin c ip le of s u b tra c tio n o f e x c ite r e x c ita tio n c u rre n t u s in g c u rre n t s in k . V o lta g e c o n tro lle rh a sP ID c h a ra c te ris tic , w h ile e x c ite r e x c ita tio n

c u rre n t c o n tro lle rh a s
P
c h a ra c te ris tic .
P u ls e -w id th
m o d u la to r
(P W M ) o p e ra te s w ith

c u rre n to f c u rre n t sin k , c o m m o n ly know na s e x c ite r e x c ita tio n c u rre n t. In itia l e x c ita tio n is re a liz e d v ia

self-excited resonant LC
u n it,
w h ile
c o m p o u n d a tio n
v ia
com pound
tran sfo rm er.
G eneratorfrequency and resonant frequency of LC unit are
e q u a l.
In control system of generator voltage new
current sink
(F ig .
2 )w ith
reactor and
transistor sw itch isu s e d . This
c u rre n t
s in k
i s
c a p a b le
o f
a c h ie v e
c h a n g e s
o f
e x c ite r
e x c ita tio n c u rre n t in
m u c h w id e r ra n g e (p ra c tic a lly fro m
z e ro to m axim -)
w ith

le ss lo a d in g c u rre n to ft r a n s i s t o r th a n to d a y \u2019s c u rre n t s in k s w ith resistor and transistor sw itch. Transistor sw itch needs constant frequency and\u2018changeable tr a n s is to r

im p u lse
c o n d u c tio n
p e rio d .
C h a ra c te ris tic
o f
e x c ite r e x c ita tio n c u rre n t w h ic h d e p e n d s o n PW M o p e ra tio n
4U,
r- - - - - - - - - - - - -
I
I
1
-
m e a s u re
u n it
2
-
v o lta g e
c o n tr o lle r
(P IC ))
3
-
c o n tr o lle r
o f
e x c ite r
e x c ita tlo n
c u rre n t
(P )
4
-
p u ls e - w id th
m o d u lo to r
(P W M )
5
-
d ie s e l
m o to r
6
-
s y n c h ro n o u s
g e n e ro to r
7
- _b ru s h le s s
g e n e ro to r
8
-
th re e
p h o s e
d io d e
re c tifie r
9
-
m e o s u re
u n it
o f
e x c lte r
e x c ita tlo n
c u rre n t
1 0
-
p u ls e
o m p lifie r
1 1
-
c u rre n t
s in k
Fig.1P rin c ip le schem eo f d ie s e le le c tric a la g g r e g a t e
0 -7 8 0 3 -3 1 0 4 -4
.a 7 5
-
\u201c0
\u201cb
\u201cc
w
G E N E R A T O R
F ig .2h c i p l e schem eo f self-excited u m t w ith current s in k

signal is nonlinear and also depends on frequency. Linear static ch aracteristico f e x c ite r e x c ita tio n c u rre n t w ith in te rn a l control loop is taken enabling increase in speed of system perform ance.

D iesel
m o to r
a c c o m p a n ie d
w ith
c o n tro l
s y s te m
a n d
g e n e ra to r w ith
th e v o lta g e c o n tro l sy ste m

m a k e c o m p le x , n o n lin e a r a n d m u ltiv a ria b le sy ste m s. M a th e m a tic a l m o d e ls are developed for each part of diesel electrical aggregate (c h e se l

m o to r
w ith
s p e e d
c o n tro l
system ,

sy n c h ro n o u s g e n e ra to r, b ru s h le s s e x c ite r, s e lf-e x c ite d c o m p o u n d in g u n it, vdltage controllerand load), w h ch are afterw ards ccinnected in general m odelof the aggregate.

A .D ie s e l m o to r
D iesel
m o to r
e x p re s s e s
c h a ra c te ris tic s
o f
c o m p le x ,
m u ltiv a ria b le a n d n o n lin e a r s y s te m . I ts d y n a m ic b e h a v io r is
p re s e n te d
v ia
s y s te m
o f
d iffe re n tia l e q u a tio n s
o f
m o to r,
turbocom pressor,
in le t
a n d
o u tle t
c o lle c to rs
a n d
s p e e d
c o n tro lle r.
B y
ta k in g
in to
c o n s id e ra tio n
o f
d fie re n tid
e q u a tio n so ftu rb o c o m p re sso r, in le t a n d
o u tle t c o lle c to rs ,

k h o w le d g eo \u20acm any diesel m otor characteristics are required as m uch as very com plicated experim ental m easurem ents. B ecauseo f observing priority of generator\u2019s characteristic v a ria b le s , d ie s e l m o to r a s th e p a rto f th e a g g re g a te is in tr a n s ie n t p ro c e s s u s u a lly g iv e n w ith s im p lifie d m o d e l. T h u s , n e g le c te d

d iffe re n tia l e q u a tio n s o f tu rb o c o m p re sso r, in le t
a n d
o u tle t
c o lle c to rs
r e s u lts
w ith
sim p lified
fu n c tio n a l
schem e (Fig.3 ).
It is assum ed
that speed

control has direct im pact on o p e n in go fg a s le a d in g v a lv e\u201c a \u201d w h ic h fitsth eq u a n tityo f m o to r g a s le a d in g in

n o -lo a d
state and transient process.
A lso ,
i n
d ie se l m o to r o p e ra tio n , th e
to rq u e
p u ls a tio n
i s
n e g le c te d
assum ing
d ire c t p ro p o rtio n
o f
to rq u e
(w ith o u t
d e la y in g ) to q u a n tity o f m o to r g a s le a d in g .
Speed controllerhas differentdesigns. In today\u2019s practice,
d ire c t m e c h a n ic a l? m e c h a n ic -h y d ra u lic a l,

e le c ro h y d ra u lic a l and electronic controllers w ith m icroprocessors are used.I n th e p a p e r, m o to r w ith d ire c t m e c h a n ic a l c o n tro lle r is ta k e n .

/
I
F ig .3S im p lifie dfu n c tio n a l s c h e m eo f d ie s e l m o to r
D y n a m ic
perform ance
o f
d ie s e l
m o lD r
w ith
i t s
s p e e d
(1 )
control system c m be described by follow ing equations:
d a ,
JD M
\u2018-z
=
T D M
-T &
>
w here
JD Mis a g g re g a te in e rtia to rq u e ,TD M d ie se l m o to r
to rq u e ,T ehg e n e ra to r\u2019s e le c tro m a g n e tic to rq u e ,
z 1
a n d
z 2
tim e constants of speed controller,w
aggregate speed,
co o
re fe re n c e
aggregate speed,k
c o n tro l a m p lifie r a n d
TD M o
d ie s e l m o to r to rq u e a t n o -lo a d s ta te .
B .S y n c h ro n o u s g e n e r a to r

U su a lly , m a th e m a tic a l m o d e lso r s y n c h ro n o u s g e n e ra to r are givenb y transform ing steady state abc coordinate system in to

d q
c o o rd in a te
system .
A c c o rd in g
to
re fe re n c e s ,
m a th e m a tic a l m o d e li s given in dq system

w ith n o n lin e a r variables, but the w ayo f ta k in g n o n lin e a ritie s in to th e m o d e l d e p e n d s

o n
s o lv in g
th e
c o n c re te
p ro b le m .
B ecause
o f
saturation in
m a th e m a tic a l m o d e l o f
g e n e ra to r w ith

s e lf - e x c ita tio n re m a n e n c e a n d n o n lin e a ritie s u s in g n o -lo a d s ta te characterislics.In the model of the generator, changes of v a ria b le s a re ta k e n in d -a x is . Iti s supposed that variables in q -a x is

a re
c o n s ta n t. T h e
p .u . e q u a tio n so f m a th e m a tic a l
m o d e l o f g e n e ra to r w ith s a tu ra tio n in c lu d e d a re :
-vd=R ,.id
+(x i
.id
+x J d.ir
+x &
\u20181 ,
+ydO )
+w .y ,
,(3 .a )
( 3 .b )
(3 4
(3 .4
(3 3 )
(3 .0

C hanges of variables in d-axis of generhtor m odel w hich are takeni nn o -lo a d s ta te c o n d itio n a re m a rk e d w ith* , w h ile in d e x\u201c 0 \u201d denotes rem anence. C hange of saturation caused

b y generator speed changingi sn e g le c te d .I nF ig .4c h a n g e
o f
re a c ta n c e
x id
is s h o w n . S u p p o s in g th a t d is s ip a tio n
o f
re a c ta n c e s a re c o n s ta n t,x ;d
=x&
=x &w o rth .
-v ,= R ,\u2019l,+ S
(X ,\u2018l,+ X g * iQ
)-~ \u2019v /d
,
V I=R ,
.i,
f s
xM .i d+ x ;
.if+x& .i o+ y ll,,),
( \u2018
( *
0=R ,
.i,
+ s(x a
. \u2018
zq
+ x ,
.iQ),
T ,
=i d
(x ,.I ,
+x g
.i,
) - ( . . ; . I d
+ x ;
.t,+ x ;
. i ,+
0=R ,
.io
+ s
x d D. i d+ x &
. i f
+ x i.i , + y o ,,),
+
v D
0 )\u2018\u2018 q
C .B rushless exciter w ith rotatin g diode rectifier
P re s e n tly ,
a c c o rd in g
to
re fe re n c e s
fu ll
d y n a m ic
p e rfo rm a n c eo f b ru s h le s s e x c ite r w ith ro ta tin g d io d e re c tifie r
i sn o te x p lo re d
i n
d e p th
i n
d iffe re n t g e n e ra to r o p e ra tin g
- 1
-
1
I
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
0
0 1
0 .4
0 1
0 .1
I
I1
F ig .4C hangeso fre a c ta n c e x i.i nd -a x iso f g e n e ra to r
m odes. Internal resistance, exciter arm ature
re a c tio n
a n d
com m utation process of & ode rectifier have

c o n s id e ra b le e ffe c ts o n s ta tic a n d d y n a m ic c h a ra c te ris tic s o f e x c ite r. B y a ll e le c tro m a g n e tic

e ffe c ts
w ith
s p e e d
c h a n g e
ta k e n
in to
c o n s id e ra tio n
o f
b ru s h le s s
e x c ite r
w ith
ro ta tin g
d io d e

re c tifie r, fro m th e c o m p le x m a th e m a tic a l d e s c rip tio n re s u lts w h ic h is n o t a p p ro p ria te in c o m p u ta tio n . M o d e l (F ig .5 )i s c h o s e n

fro m
[2 ]w here
brushless synchronous
e x c ite r is
m odeled w ith
s a tu ra tio n( S E ) a t n o -lo a d
s ta te , a n d

d io d e re c tifie r w ith v a lv e c h a ra c te ris tic(F e ).Effect of arm ature re a c tio ni sre p re s e n te d v ia k D fa c to r. C o m m u ta tio n re a c tio n of diode rectifier is defined using subtransient reactance of e x c ite r.

D.M a th e m a tic a l m o d e lo f lo a d
T ransform ation
o f v o lta g e
e q u a tio n so f lo a d
fro m
a b c
coordinate system
in to d q
c o o rd in a te sy ste m
results w ith
m a th e m a tic a l m o d e lo fg e n e ra to r's lo a d w h ic hi s s ta te d in
p .u .a s fo llo w s :
(4 )
(5 )
V ,=R ,.i d + s .x L. i d+ w .x ,. i,
,
V ,=R L .iq+ s .x ,.i,
-w .x ,.i,
.
E .
S e lf-e x c ite d
re so n a n t
c o m p o u n d in g
u n it
a n d
e x c ite r
e x c ita tio n c u r r e n t c o n tr o l lo o p
S e lf-e x c ite d c o m p o u n d in g u n it p o s s e s ''m ix e d "
(A C -D C )
c u rre n t c irc u it, a n d 1 1 1 m a th e m a tic a l d e s c rip tio n s w o u ld
lead to vexy com plicated sim ulation m odel. Sim plified m odel
i s achieved through
c o m p e n s a tio n
schem e (Fig.6 ) w here
m ixed circuit of self-excited unit is replaced w ithA C c irc u it.
Inc o m p e n s a tio n s c h e m e g e n e r a to r is e q u ip p e d w ith v o lta g e
supplier, com pound transform erwith

current supplier, and w in d in go fe x c ite r e x c ita tio n w ith e q u iv a le n t re sista n c e o f e x c ite r e x c ita tio n .

U pon
th is
b a s is
o f
c o m p e n s a tio n
schem e
w ith
tran sfo rm atio no f a b c c o o rd in a tes y s t e m
in tod qc o o rd in a te
system ,
th e
s e lf-b x c ite d
re s o n a n t
c o m p o u n d in g
u n it
is
m o d e le d w ith e q u a tio n s a s fo llo w s :
IQ
I
'f
F ig .5S tru c tu ra ldiagram of synchronouse x c ite rw i t hro ta tin g
d io d ere c tifie r
A
1
1
I
F ig .6C om pensation schem e of self-excited c o m p o u n d in g u n it
0 ,x ,.i , ,+V c,,
V ,= R ,
*i,,+x ,
-
-
4 ,
d t

PW M is in operation at frequency of3 3 0H z , and can be s im p lifie d in m o d e lin g o f p r a c tic a l o p e ra tio n s . S u c h m o d e l o fP W Mis not suitable as a part of com m on m odel of the a g g re g a te .

S ta rtin g
fro m
th e
fa c t
th a t
s e lf-e x c ite d
c o m p o u n d in g
u n it
d e te rm in e s
e x c ite r e x c ita tio n
c u rre n t,

n e e d e d c o rre c tio n o f e x c ite r e x c ita tio n c u rre n t is m a d e by v o lta g e c o n tro lle r. C o n tro l lo o p o f e x c ite r e x c ita tio n c u rre n t w ith self-excited unit is m odeled as it is show n by structural b lo c k d ia g ra m (F ig . 7 ).

F .G e n e r a to r v o lta g e c o n tr o lle r
G e n e ra to r v o lta g e c o n tro lle r h a s P ID

characteristic. Its m a th e m a tic a l m o d e l w ith fe e d b a c k lo o p e le m e n ts in c lu d e d is depicted by structuralschem e (Fig.8 ).

111. S IM U L A T E DA N DE X P E R IM E N T A L L YO B T A I N E D
R E S P O N S E S
For eachp a r to f th e system , th e sim ulation m odel is m ade
by using ''M atrix?

s im u la tio n so ftw a re p a c k a g e . D iffe re n t parts of the sim ulation m odel are connected into com m on m odel of the aggregate (Fig.9 ).D y n a m ic b e h a v io r o f th e a g g re g a te

i s
sim ulated
re g a rd in g
n o m in a l
s te p
lo a d in g
a n d o r u n lo a d in go fg e n e r a t o r(5 4k V A ,4 0 0 V ,7 8 A ,1 5 0 0
m id ',5 0H z , cosq~ 0.8)a s a triggering events.. Sim ulated
a n d e x p e rim e n ta lly o b ta in e d re s p o n s e so f th e a g g re g a te (F ig .
1 0a n d
1 1 )m a tc h
i n
s ig n ific a n t d e g re e a p p ro v in g
d ie s e l
electrical aggregate m odel correction.

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