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Gas Network Analyses

# Gas Network Analyses

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This document shows how to make a complete analysis for a gas network of pipes using Excel and Matlab
This document shows how to make a complete analysis for a gas network of pipes using Excel and Matlab

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11/16/2012

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CNG Alternative Network Analysis
–
Part III
CHAPTER 1NETWORK ANALYSIS

CNG Alternative Network Analysis
–
Part III1

Network analyses1.1

Overview
The solution of a liquid/gas network meansestimating the flow rates in all the network branches and calculating pressures at all node.The hydraulic analysis of networks isimportant for the hydraulic and mechanicaldesign of the different networks on the ship.Generally we should have at least fivenetworks onboard the ship; theloading/unloading network, the relief network,the inert gas network, the CO
2
fire fightingnetwork and the water fire fighting network.For the loading/unloading network it isnecessary to find the maximum flow rate in thenetwork and to find the maximum pressure ateach branch, thus allowing the diameter andthickness selection of each branch. Also weneed to find the loading/unloading time of theship. For CO
2
fire fighting network, it isimportant to find the pressure drop in thenetwork due to a certain flow rate and henceselect the network nozzles. The water firefighting network should be solved to determinethe required pump power.This chaptershowsthe Hardy Cross method for network analysesand the other bases of the analyses of gasnetworks. It discusses two programs used tosolve the network, one is made usingMATLAB and the other is made usingMicrosoft Office Excel. Then we go throughthe transient analyses of the loading andunloading process of the network.
1.2

Hardy Cross Method
The Hardy Cross method is the method used tosolve liquid and gas networks. We are now todiscuss this method and how to use it for gasnetwork analyses.
1.2.1

Network Elements
As shown in figure, the
branch
is a pipeconnecting two nodes. The
loop
is a group of pipes connected in series thus the last pointlays on the first one. A
single pipe
is a pipeconnecting two separate loops. The
tank
formsa node at which the pressure is known but theflow entering the network or exiting it isunknown. Only one known-pressure node isneeded in each problem to determine thepressures at all nodes in the network. If there ismore than one tank in the network, they shouldbe connected by a
virtual pipe
. The virtual pipeis an imaginary pipe that connects two tanks toform a closed loop. The energy difference onthe virtual pipe should be given, thus there isonly one given pressure in each network.Virtual pipes should be connected in series toform one open loop.

SupplyConsumptionNodeVirtualPipeLoopBranchTank Tank Single pipe

CNG Alternative Network Analysis
–
Part III1.2.2

Governing Equations1.2.2.1

Continuity Equation
The continuity equation should be satisfied atall nodes in the network. That is:
ΣQ
in

= ΣQ
out

(Or ΣQ = 0
The algebraic summation of all flow ratesentering and exiting the whole network shouldequal zero. It should be noted that in case of gas networks the flowrate used is the standardflowrate which is equivalent to the actualflowrate in liquid networks.
1.2.2.2

Energy equation
Across any branch 12; the change in theenergy of the fluid due to flow through branchshould be equal to the energy loss due tofriction in this branch. That is:
LD2C2 21lossh2aveZ2aveT2R2H1H2aveP2M22P21PaveTaveZR2M10002u1uln2C
      
Where;u
1
& u
2
= flow velocities at sections 1 and 2respectively, m/sP
1
& P
2
= average pressure between points1&2, kpaP
ave
= average pressure between sections 1 and2
  
2P1P2P1P2P1P32aveP
T
1
&T
2
= temperatures at sections 1 and 2respectively, k T
ave
= average temperature betweensections 1 and 2, k
22T1TaveT
R = universal gas constant = 8.314kj/kg-k M = gas molecular weight = 17.4kg/kmol (assuming 90% methane and 10%ethane)Z
ave
= compressibility factor at P
ave
and T
ave
From CNGA equation;
3.925TG1.785105272.466P11Z

2DbZbTR
π
bPMbQ4A.mC
Q
b
= standard flow rate (m3/s)P
b
& T
b
= standard pressure and temperature;100 kpa and 298 k respectivelyZ
b
= compressibility factor at P
b
and T
b

4 CLOSED LOOPSTank 1Tank 2Tank 3

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