Random access memory contains the software and data structures that allow the router to function. The principle software running in RAM is the Cisco IOS image and the running configuration.
Non-volatile random access memory is mainly used to store the configuration. NVRAM uses a battery to maintain the data when power is removed from the router.
This event is a series of hardware tests to verify that all components of
the router are functional. During this test the router also determines
what hardware is present. POST executes from microcode resident in
the system ROM.
Bootstrap code is used to perform subsequent events like finding the
IOS software, loading it, and then running it. Once the IOS software is
loaded and running, the bootstrap code is not used until the next time
the router is reloaded or power cycled.
The bootstrap code determines where the IOS software to be run is
located. The configuration register, configuration file, or Flash
memory are the normal places to house the IOS image. Where and
what image file to use can be configured.
Once the bootstrap code has found the proper image, it then loads that image into RAM and starts the IOS running. Some routers do not load the IOS image into RAM, but execute it directly from Flash memory.
The desired configuration for the router is loaded and executed. If no configuration exists the router will enter the setup utility or attempt an autoinstall.
1. Make sure that the router finds tested hardware.
2.Find and load the Cisco IOS software that the router uses for its operating system.
3.Find and apply the configuration statements about router-specific attributes, protocol functions, and
If no valid configuration file exists in NVRAM, the operating system executes a question-driven initial
configuration routine referred to as the system configuration dialog. This special mode is also called
the setup dialog.
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