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10 April 1991
/
V o l. 3 0 , N o . 1 1
/
A P P L IE D O P T IC S
1 3 2 5
W a v e fro n t re c o n s tru c tio n u s in g ite ra tiv e
F o u rie r tra n s fo rm s
F r a n g o is R o d d ie r a n d C la u d e R o d d ie r
U n iv ersity
of H aw aii, Institute
for Astronom y, 2680
W o o d la w n D riv e , H o n o lu lu , H a w a ii 9 6 8 2 2 .
R eceived 4 February 1991.
Sponsored by Jam esB . B reckinridge,Jet Propulsion Lab\u00ad
o ra to ry .
0 0 0 3 -6 9 3 5 /9 1 /1 1 1 3 2 5 -0 3 $ 0 5 .0 0 /0 .
\u00a9 1 9 9 1 O p tic a l S o c ie ty o f A m e ric a .

T h e p ro b le m of o b ta in in g a lin e a r le a s t-s q u a re s w a v e fro n t estim ate from an array of w avefront slope m easurem ents has long been discussed in the literature.

1 ,2
N o ll
3

has show n that th e s o lu tio n is t h a t o f a P o is s o n e q u a tio n w ith N e u m a n n b o u n d a ry c o n d itio n s .

Succesive overrelaxation (SOR)algo\u00ad
rithm s are generally used to solve the problem
n u m e ric a lly .
4
H ere we present a novel algorithm
based on fast Fourier
tr a n s f o r m
(FFT) subroutines.
T he basic ideai s that the L aplacian operator\u25bf
2
=\u2202
2
/\u2202 x
2
+
\u2202
2
/\u2202 y
2
tra n s la te s in to a m u ltip lic a tio n
by u
2
+
\u03c5
2
i n
th e
F o u rie r (u ,\u03c5 ) d o m a in .
H e n c e b y ta k in g th e F o u rie r tra n s \u00ad
fo rm o f th e w a v e fro n t L a p la c ia n\u25bf
2
W , d iv id in g it b yu
2
+\u03c5
2
,
a n d ta k in g a n in v e rse F o u rie r tra n s fo rm
o n e s h o u ld b e a b le
to retrieve the w avefront surface
W .
T his is the basis of
F o u rie r m e th o d s fo r so lv in g
d iffe re n tia l
e q u a tio n s .

T h is s im p le a p p ro a c h w o u ld h o ld fo r a w a v e fro n t w ith n o b o u n d \u00ad a ry

(fu n c tio n
w ith
u n b o u n d e d
su p p o rt).
I n
p ra c tic e
th e
w a v e fro n t L a p la c ia n is m u ltip lie d b y th e p u p il tra n s m is s io n
fu n c tio nP ix ,y ), a n d its F o u rie r tra n s fo rm
is ,therefore, con\u00ad
volved by the Fourier transform
o f P {x,y).
A s a result the
s im p le p r o p e r ty in d ic a te d a b o v e n o lo n g e r h o ld s .
A proper
tr e a tm e n t sh o u ld ta k e th e sig n a l b o u n d a rie s in to
a c c o u n t
u s in g b o u n d a ry c o n d itio n s .
F o u rie r m e th o d s h a v e a lre a d y
b e e n p ro p o se d in th e lite ra tu re ,
5 ,6
b u t th e y e s s e n tia lly a p p ly
to square or rectangular dom ains.
T h e m e th o d
d e s c rib e d
h e re a p p lie s to d o m a in s w ith a n y a rb itra ry s h a p e .

T h e b a s is o f th e m e th o d is a n e x tra p o la tio n o f th e w a v e - front beyond the boundaries using a G ershberg type algo\u00ad rith m .

7
Aflo w c h a rt o f th e a lg o rith m is show n in F ig ,1 .
O ne

starts w ith tw o arrays of num bers which are the sam pled w a v e fro n tx a n dy s lo p e s in s id e th e p u p il d o m a in a n d z e ro s o u ts id e th e d o m a in .

A n F F T a lg o rith m
is used to tak e th e
F o u rie r tra n sfo rm
of these arrays w hich represent functions
o fu a n d\u03c5 .
T h e F o u rie r tra n sfo rm
o f th ex slo p ei s m u ltip lie d
b yu , th a t o f th ey s lo p e is m u ltip lie d b y\u03c5 .
B oth arrays are
a d d e d , a n d th e re s u lti s d iv id e d b yu
2
+\u03c5
2
everyw here except
a t th e o rig in w h e re th e ra tio is u n d e te rm in e d .

S in c ew e s e e k th e s o lu tio n w h ic h h a s z e ro m e a n , w e p u t z e ro a t th e o rig in . T h e d iv is io n b y u

2
+ \u03c5
2

c a n b e c o n s id e re d a s a n a p o d iz a tio n . A n even stronger apodization can be used at the beginning to a c c e le ra te

c o n v e rg e n c e .
8
N e x t, o n e ta k e s a n in v e rs e F o u rie r
tran sfo rm .
Aresult of the apodization is th at the signal now
e x te n d s b e y o n d
th e in itia l b o u n d a rie s .

H ow ever, w e are in te re s te d o n ly in th e p a r t w ith in th e b o u n d a rie s w h ic hi s o u r first w avefront estim ate.

T h e n e x t s te p c o n s is ts o f ta k in g
th e x a n dy d e riv a tiv e of th is e s tim a te .
T h e result w ill in
g e n e ra l d iffe r fro m
th e o rig in a l d a ta .
The rms

d iffe re n c e betw een the tw o set of num bers is a m easure of the current error in the reconstruction process.

T h e a lg o rith m

c o n s is ts o f p u ttin g b a c k th e o rig in a l d a ta in s id e th e d o m a in w h e re m easurem ents have beenm ade, w hereas keeping the extrap\u00ad o la te d s ig n a l o u ts id e th e d o m a in .

T h e p ro c e ssi s th e n ite ra t\u00ad
e d .

W hen th e error becom es below a preassigned level, th e n e x t w a v e fro n t e s tim a te is c o m p u te d a n d th e ite ra tiv e p ro \u00ad cess is stopped.

B o th th e a b o v e d e s c rib e d a lg o rith m a n d a S O R a lg o rith m
h a v e b e e n a p p lie d to th e s a m e s im u la te d d a ta .
On 128 X
1 2 8 -p ix e l a rra y s th e c o m p u tin g tim e w as fo u n d to b e a p p ro x -
F ig .1 .
Flow chartofth e iterativ e Fourier transform algorithm used
to reconstruct a w avefrontW from the m easured w avefront slopes
\u2202 W /\u2202 xa n d \u2202 W /\u2202 y .
im ately th e sam e.
H o w e v e r, th e n e w a lg o rith mw as fo u n d to
p ro d u c e
b e tte r
w avefront
e s tim a te s
e s p e c ia lly
n e a r
th e
e d g e s .
T h is is c le a rly d e m o n s tr a te d in F ig . 2 , w h ic h sh o w s
an exam ple of wavefront reconstruction.

T h e full line is a section of the original 2-D w avefront (spherical aberration). Ac irc u la r p u p il w asused w ith a 30-pixelra d iu s . T he dashed line is the sam e section reconstructed w ith the SOR algo\u00ad rith m .

T h e d a s h /d o t lin e is th e s e c tio n re c o n s tru c te d w ith
th e F F T b a s e d a lg o rith m .
The approach described above is quite general and can
also be used to reconstruct w avefronts from
w avefront La-
F ig .3 .
F lo wchart of a nite ra tiv e F o u rie r tra n s fo rm a lg o rith m u se d
to reconstruct a w avefrontW from the w avefront Laplacian m ea\u00ad
sured from out of focus im ages.
1 0
p la c ia n s o b ta in e d d ire c tly fro m e x tra -fo c a l im a g e s.
9 ,1 0

F ig \u00ad ure 3 show s a flow chart of a sim ilar algorithm w hich recon\u00ad s tr u c ts w a v e fro n ts fro m w a v e fro n t L a p la c ia n s e s tim a te d b y tak in g th e difference b etw een th e illu m in atio n s in sy m m etri\u00ad cally defocused im ages.

T h e b o u n d a ry c o n d itio n s a re ta k e n in to a c c o u n t b y fo rc in g to z e ro th e ra d ia l d e riv a tiv e w ith in a narrow band surrounding the boundaries.

T h is is e q u iv a \u00ad le n t to so lv in g th e P o is s o n e q u a tio n w ith a z e ro ra d ia l e d g e s lo p e a s a N e u m a n n b o u n d a r y c o n d itio n .

Indeed the differ-
F ig . 2 .
Exam ple of wavefront reconstructions
fro m
wavefront slopes.

F u ll lin e , o rig in a l w a v e - front; dashed line, reconstructed wavefront using th e S O R a lg o rith m . D a s h /d o tlin e , re c o n s tru c te d

w avefront using iterative Fourier transform s.
1 3 2 6
A P P L IE D O P T IC S
/
V o l. 3 0 , N o . 1 1
/
10 April 1991

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