SUPER COOL ENGLISH
in as much as
for the reason that
it follows that
one may infer
one may conclude
When dealing with
persuasive writing, it will be helpful for you to outline the argument by premises and conclusions. By
looking at the structure of the argument, it is easy to spot logical error.
Freshmen bring a little (knowledge) in
Seniors take none away
Universities are full of knowledge
"Even though there may be a deceiver of some sort, very powerful and very tricky, who bends all his
efforts to keep me perpetually deceived, there can be no slightest doubt that I exist, since he deceives
me; and let him deceive me as much as he will, he can never make me be nothing as long as I think I
am something. Thus, after having thought well on this matter, and after examining all things with
care, I must finally conclude and maintain that this proposition: I am, I exist, is necessarily true every
time that I pronounce it or conceive it in my mind."
to the topics discussed in the text.
Consider the two statements:
1. Any member of a varsity squad is excused from physical education.
2. Henry is a member of the varsity football squad.
following third statement as true:
3. Henry is excused from physical education.
We say that the third statement followslogi call y from the other two.
In drawing logical conclusions it does not matter whether the statements we accept as true are
upon what we are talking about. Thus, if we accept the following statements as true:
1. All whales are mammals;
2. All mammals are warm-blooded animals;
3. All warm-blooded animals are subject to colds;
then we must conclude that
4. All whales are subject to colds.
Do you see that statements 1, 2, and 3 are arranged in logical order ?
In the diagram at the right the set of whales is represented by W, the set of
mammals by M, the set of warm-blooded animals by B, the set of animals
subject to colds by C, and the set of all animals by A. The diagram shows that
W is a subset of M as required by statement 1, that M is a subset of B as
required by statement 2, and that B is a subset of C as required by statement 3.
The only conclusion that uses all of our given statements is that W is a subset
of C, as asserted by statement 4.
Had our third statement been "no warm-blooded animals are subject to colds," our
diagram would have been the one shown at the right and our conclusion would have
been "no whales are subject to colds."
conclusions. One such set is the following:
Babies are illogical;
Nobody is despised who can manage a crocodile;
Illogical persons are despised.
Now bringing you back...
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