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Internet Working > Internet Protocol-ip

Internet Working > Internet Protocol-ip

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Module
6
Internetworking
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
Lesson2
Internet Protocol (IP)
Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
Specific Instructional Objectives
At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to:
\u2022
Explain the relationship between TCP/IP and OSI model
\u2022
Explain different classes of IP addresses
\u2022
Explain the concept of subnetting and subnet masking
\u2022
Explain the ARP/RARP protocol
\u2022
Explain fragmentation and reassembly
\u2022
Explain the ICMP protocols
\u2022
State the key features of IPv6
6.2.1 Introduction

In the previous lesson we have discussed various devices required for internetworking. In addition to these devices, several protocols are required to provide necessary functionality for internetworking. The software that provide these protocols is known as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP acts as a glue to link different types of LAN and WAN to provide Internet, a single integrated network for seamless communication.

The IP provides unreliable, connectionless best-effort datagram delivery service, whereas TCP provides reliable, efficient and cost-effective end-to-end delivery of data. The relationship between TCP/IP and the OSI model is shown in Fig. 6.2.1. This lesson introduces the IP protocol and various issues related to it.

6.2.2 Addressing

To send a packet from a source node to a destination node correctly through a network, the packet must contain enough information about the destination address. It is also common to include the source address, so that retransmission can be done, if necessary. The addressing scheme used for this purpose has considerable effect on routing.

There are two possible approaches used for addressing;flat andhierarchical. In
flat addressing every possible node is assigned a unique number. When a new node is

added to the network, it must be given an address within the allowed address range. Addressing used in Ethernet is an example of flat addressing, where addresses (48-bits long) are allocated centrally, blocks of addresses are apportioned to manufactures, so that no two devices in the world will have the same address. Flat addressing has the advantage that if a node is moved from one location to another, it can retain its unique address.

Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

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