Crowd Control and Crowd Management, Index No. III–G2
Crowd management is defined as techniques used to manage lawful public assemblies before,during, and after an event for the purpose of maintaining the event’s lawful status. Crowd man-agement can be accomplished in part through coordination with event planners and group lead-ers, permit monitoring, and past event critiques.
Crowd control is defined as those techniques used to address unlawful public assemblies, includ-ing a display of formidable numbers of police officers, crowd containment, dispersal tactics, andarrest procedures.
C.First Amendment Activities
First Amendment activities include all forms of speech and expressive conduct used to conveyideas and/or information, express grievances, or otherwise communicate with others and includeboth verbal and non-verbal expression.Common First Amendment activities include, but are not limited to, speeches, demonstrations,vigils, picketing, distribution of literature, displaying banners or signs, use of puppets to convey amessage, street theater, and other artistic forms of expression. All these activities involve thefreedom of speech, association, and assembly and the right to petition the government, as guaran-teed by the United States Constitution (First Amendment) and the California Constitution(Article 1, Sections 2 & 3).All persons have the right to march, demonstrate, protest, rally, or perform other activities pro-tected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution and the California Constitution.The government may impose reasonable restrictions on the time, place, or manner of protectedspeech, provided the restrictions are justified without reference to the content of the regulatedspeech, that they are narrowly tailored to serve a significant governmental interest, and that theyleave open ample alternative channels for communication of the information.
Demonstration is used generically in this Training Bulletin to include a wide range of FirstAmendment activities which require, or which may require, police traffic control, crowd manage-ment, crowd control, crowd dispersal, or enforcement actions in a crowd situation.As used in this Training Bulletin, the term, demonstration, means a public display of a group’s orindividual’s feeling(s) toward a person(s), idea, cause, etc and includes, but is not limited to,marches, protests, student walk-outs, assemblies, and sit-ins. Such events and activities usuallyattract a crowd of persons including participants, onlookers, observers, media, and other personswho may disagree with the point of view of the activity.