Each section contains 50 questions. Observe the given weightage to each question. 1/3 rd negative marking do exist for the wrong answers. Maintaining the time limit of 2 hours for each section is of atmost importance, while taking the test.
Whenever the human ear perceives music, or any other sound, it is always the result of a vibrating object. These vibrations, usually of a string or column of air in the case of an instrument, act to move the air around the virating source, creating a sound wave with the same frequency as the original vibration. The original waves are classified as either transverse or longitudinal, depending on whether a string or a coloumn of air is vibrating, respectively Certain frequencies of sound correspond to musical notes within an octave; for the same note one octave above, thefrequency is double its value in the lower octave. Therefore, in order to play a specific note of either a string or wind instrument, the string or column of air must vibrate at the appropriate frequency.
The wavelength of any wave propagating in that string is dependent on the length of the string, which is assumed to remain constant during virbration. When the string vibrates at its lowest frequency, it is termed the first harmonic, vibrations at the second lowest frequency are termed the first overtone, or second harmonic, and so forth. When a musician presses on the strings, the effective length of the string shortens, increasing the frequency of the first harmonic. However, even without pressing down on the strings, the musician can produce different sounds from them, since although the strings are of equal length, they do not have equal mass or equal tension. The dependence of frequency on linear density, or mass per unit length, and tension is illustrated by equation 1.
Where f is the frequency, T is the tension on the string, p is the linear density of the string, and\u03bb is the wavelength. In wind instruments, though the mechanism of sound production differes from that of the string instruments, the basic principles of a vibrating medium are retained. These instruments use a column of air, open at one, both, or neither end, to propagate a sound wave. Nodes and antinodes are crreated along the length of the column of air. A node exists when some value is maximally restricted from change; whereas an antinode exists where some value can maximally change. For example, a mode of vibration in terms of displacement of air would have a node at a closed end, since air is not free to move there, resulting in no change in displacement, for example a mode in terms of air pressure. Analogously to the string instrument, the wind instrument may have its air column shortened or elongated by a skilled musician, producing specific notes, which are arranged in a specific way to produce music.
It is known that some note D# roughly corresponds to a frequency of 311 sec-1. A musician attempts to play that some note in an octave lower. If the wavelength of the vibrating string is 0.25 m, how fast must the wave be moving to achieve this note?
a) Thefirst harmonic has 1 more displacement node than the third overtone has.
b) The third overtone has 2 more displacement antipodes than the fifth harmonic has.
c) the fifth harmonic has 3 fewer displacement nodes than eighth overtone has.
d) The eighth overtone has 4 fewer displacement antipodes than the thirteenth harmonic has.
a) Larger densities allow the strings to have less weight, leading to greater range of frequencies.
b) There is only a finite number of wavelengths able to be produced by changing string length alone.
c) The range of string lengths required for a variety of frequencies becomes impractical.
d) The combination of altering string length and density allows for frequencies that are independent of velocity.
A student suspends a block vertically from a string, and when the string is plucked, it vibrates at some frequency. Which of the following can the student change in order double the frequency of vibration, assuming all other variable remain unchanged?
a) have the mass of the string
b) double the wavelength
c) decrease the length of the string one -fourth isoriginal length
d) quadruple the mass of the block
A spherical particle is travelling horizontally when it collides with a portion of a vibrating string with both ends fixed. Assuming the string was propagating a horizontal wave, and that this collision is completely inelastic, which set of information allows for the determination of the particle\u2019s velocity before the collision?
A homogeneous copper disc of mass \u2018m\u2019 kg and radius \u2018r\u2019 mt is placed with its centre at \u2018O\u2019 in a magnetic field of induction B Tesla so that the disc is perpendicular to the magnetic field. When the circuit is closed the disc begins to rotate int sec acquiring a velocity of \u2018n\u2019 revolution per second. The current in the circuit is \u2014
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