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In the last sentence of the first paragraph wire told the suttle makes 1.85 x 10-4 revolutions per second. This is fgrequency in units of revolutions/second. Take one over this number to get period in
5000 seconds equals 5000/60 minutes which is close to choice A. Note that the next closest choice is 4 hrs which is over twice as large as choice A. We\u2019re certainly not off by nearly as much as a factor of 2 in our approximations. Alternatively, since there are 60 x 60 = 36000 seconds in an hour, we know that 5000 seconds will be between 1 hour and 2 hours.
The correct answer is C. Rule out choice A, since g = 0 implies no gravitational force, i.e. the shuttle is held in orbit by the gravitational force so without it, the shuttle would fly off into space. The passage itself states explicitly that gravity is not absent, things in free fall just behave as if gravity were absent. Choice B should also be eliminated by recalling that acceleration due to gravity decr3eases with height above the surface of the Earth, and the shuttle isn\u2019t close enough to the surface to approximate g by this value. Choice D is just the same as choice B, that\u2019s where the value of 9.8 comes from! Choice C makes sense because we know that the gravitional force is dependent on distance and the altitude of the shuttle is high so we can\u2019t approximate the distance by the radius of the Earth. The acceleration due to gravity g is found by applying Newton\u2019s 2nd law to the gravitional force of the Earth on an object. We write the force as F = mg where g is the acceleration of gravity, but we also know this same force is given by F = GMem/r2 where Me is the mass of the Earth, m the mass of the object, G the gravitational constant, and r the distance from the center of Earth to the position of the object. Equating the two expressions gives g = GMe/r2 which is choice C. Choice D states that g = GMeRe2 at the altitude of the shuttle. From above discussion we see that this is the value of g at the surface of the Earth, which is 9.8 m/s2. The orbit of the shuttle is sufficiently higher than the surface of the Earth so you can no longer approximate g by 9.8 m/s2.
Unfortunately this is a case where we have to consider all the statements given to reach the correct answer. Statement II is certainly true. At an altitude of 1 km, the shuttle will experience considerable air resistance from the atmosphere. The air resistance acts as a frictional force which
will decrease the speed of the shuttle below the speed needed to maintain the 1 km orbit. The result will be a decay of the orbit with the shuttle finally crashing into the ground. The engines are needed to replenish the energy that is constantly being \u201cbled off\u201d by friction. (For orbits above the Earth\u2019s atmosphere, the shuttle will maintain a constant speed with the engines turned of since there will be no frictional force to slow it down.) Statement III is incorrect because it is gravity, not the engines, that provides the centripetal force. We can eliminate choices A and D. Statement says that gravity is too strong at an altitude of 1 kilometer. A large gravitational force implies that the shuttle would have to have a larger (tangential) velocity in order to be in this orbit rather than fall to the ground. As long as the shuttle\u2019s speed is great enough, it could orbit at 1 km above the surface (neglecting air resistance); i.e. if the shuttle can sustain unifor circular motion, it is dealing with gravity, no matter how strong, just fine. So it\u2019s not the strength of the gravitational force that prevents an orbit at an altitude of 1 km. This statement is thus incorrect. Eliminate choice C.
All objects in the shuttle including the shuttle itself are in free fall as the shuttle orbits the Earth. This means that things behave the same way they do for free fall in general. Consdier the workings of a pendulum clock on Earth. What makes the pendulum swing? The force of gravity that pulls it down as it swings up. Now consider a pendulum clock in free fall. As the passage indicates physical behavior is observed that makes it appear as if gravity is absent (weightlessness of astronauts, for example). In the apparent absence of gravity, the pendulum arm doesn\u2019t swing, making the period of its motion infinite.
The correct answer is B. At the end of the passage, we are told that a circular orbit is a special case where a which is half the length of the major axis, is the radius. (I.e., the major axis is the diameter.) In other words, all the relationships given apply to circular orbits as well. The comet in an elliptical orbit has energy.
Note that we are told in the question stem that the comets have equal masses; that is why we cancel mc. \u2018Which comet has the higher total energy?\u2019 Surprise: the one in the elliptical orbit! this is so because the values of the energy are always negative. That E1 is half of E2 means that the energy of the comet in the elliptical orbit is \u2018half as negative\u2019. It is closer to zero and therefore more energetic!.
In this question we are told that not only does a planet revolve around the Sun, but the orientation of the orbit itself also rotates. We are asked for a plausible explanation. Note that in questions like this, we are not expected to know precisely the science behind it, we just need to be able to eliminate the ones that are clearly irrelevant or even wrong. Choice A is incorrect be cause centrifugal forces do not cause things to rotate. Choice B is incorrect because while it is indeed true that the gravitational attraction of the Sun provides centripetal acceleration, this is what causes the planet to rotate in a circle or an ellipse. Choice C is incorrect because even though energy may be dissipated as a planet moves through space, this will only cause the motion to slow down and the planets to gradually spiral in towards the Sun. If the ellipse maintains its shape and merely changes in orientation, the energy is constant, and so this phenomenon is independent of the dissipation of energy. Choice D provides a feasible explanation: that the planets do not merely move in an ellipse means that something else other than the gravitational field of the Sun must be influencing their motion. The attraction of the planets among themselves is certainly a likely candidate for this additional influence.
This is a projectile problem. You want to throw a projectile straight up from the 1st floor to the 6th floor, and you want it to be in the air during the time that the elevator is moving. First find the time the elevator is moving. To solve this problem, you must calculate the distance needed for the elevator to reach its maximum velocity (5 m/s as given in the paragraph above the diagram). This distance is the same as the distance necessary for the elevator to slow to a stop from maximum velocity. Use
distance necessary for the elevator to slow to a stop from maximum velocity. A trip from the first to the sixth floor is 25 m; exactly enough distance for the elevator to reach maximum velocity and then
fallen, and letN be the normal force from the hoop on the bead, with inward taken to be positive. Then the radialF=ma equation for the bead is
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