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MIS - Chapter 06 - Mobile, Wireless, And Pervasive Computing

MIS - Chapter 06 - Mobile, Wireless, And Pervasive Computing

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PART II
 The Web Revolution
236
4.Network Computing: Discovery, Communication, andCollaboration5.E-Business and E-Commerce6.Mobile, Wireless, and Pervasive Computing
CHAPTER
6
Mobile, Wireless, andPervasive Computing
Minicases: (1) Hertz / (2) Washington TownshipFireDepartment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
³
Discuss the characteristics and attributes ofmobile computing and m-commerce.
·
Describe the drivers of mobile computing.
»
Understand the technologies that support mobilecomputing.
¿
Describe wireless standards and transmissionnetworks.
´
Discuss m-commerce applications in financialand other services, advertising, and providing ofcontent.
²
Describe the applications of m-commerce withinorganizations.
Understand B2B and supply chain applicationsof m-commerce.
º
Describe consumer and personal applications ofm-commerce.
¾
Describe some non-Internet m-commerceapplications.
µ
Describe location-based commerce (l-commerce).
¸
Discuss the key characteristics and current usesof pervasive computing.
¹
Describe the major inhibitors and barriers ofmobile computing and m-commerce.
NextBus
6.1
Mobile Computing and Commerce:Overview,Benefits, and Drivers
6.2
Mobile Computing Infrastructure
6.3
M-Commerce Applications inFinancial Services
6.4
Mobile Shopping, Advertising,andContent-Providing
6.5
Mobile Intrabusiness andEnterpriseApplications
6.6
Mobile B2B and Supply Chain Applications
6.7
Mobile Consumer and PersonalService Applications
6.8
Location-Based Commerce
6.9
Pervasive Computing
6.10
Inhibitors and Barriers of MobileComputing and M-Commerce
 
237
NEXTBUS: A SUPERB CUSTOMER SERVICE
THE PROBLEM
Buses in certain parts of San Francisco have difficulty keeping up with the postedschedule, especially in rush hours. Generally, buses are scheduled to arrive every20 minutes, but at times, passengers may have to wait 30 to 40 minutes. Theschedules become meaningless, and passengers are unhappy because they wastetime.
THE SOLUTION
San Francisco bus riders carrying an Internet-enabled wireless device, such as acell phone or PDA, can quickly find out when a bus is likely to arrive at a par-ticular bus stop. The system tracks public transportation buses in
real time.
Knowing where each bus is and factoring in traffic patterns and weather reports,NextBus (
nextbus.com
) dynamically calculates the estimated arrival time of the bus to each bus stop on the route. The arrival times are also displayed on theInternet and on a public screen at each bus stop.The NextBus system has been used successfully in several other cities aroundthe United States, in Finland, and in several other countries. Figure 6.1 shows howthe NextBus system works. The core of the NextBus system is a GPS satellite that
PS Satelliteseb
 
WirelessCommunications
FIGURE 6.1
NextBus operational model.
(Source: NextBus.com/corporate/works/index.htm,2002. Used with permission of NextBus Information Systems.)
 
238
CHAPTER 6
MOBILE, WIRELESS, AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING
can tell the NextBus information center where a bus is at any given time. Based ona bus’s location, the scheduled arrival time at each stop can be calculated. Users canaccess the information from their cell phones or PCs, anytime, anywhere. NextBusschedules are also posted in real time on shelter signs and public displays.Currently, NextBus is an ad-free customer service, but in the near future ad-vertising may be added. As the system knows exactly where you are when yourequest information and how much time you have until your next bus, it maysend you to the nearest Starbucks for a cup of coffee, giving you an electronicdiscount coupon for a cup of coffee as you wait.
THE RESULTS
Passengers in San Francisco are happy with the NextBus system; worries aboutmissing the bus are diminished. A similar system is used in rural areas in Finland,where buses are infrequent and winters are very cold, passengers can stay in awarm coffeehouse not far from the bus stop rather than waiting in the cold fora bus that may be an hour late. Also, using the system, a bus company can dobet-ter scheduling, arrange for extra buses when needed, and improve its operations.
Sources:
Compiled from ITS America 2001; Murphy, 1999; and
nextbus.com
,accessed 2003.
LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS CASE
This opening vignette is an example of location-based e-commerce, which is anapplication of
mobile commerce,
in which EC services are provided to customerswherever they are located at the time they need them. This capability, which isnot available in regular EC, may change many things in our lives. The vignettealso exemplifies
 pervasive computing,
in which services are seamlessly blended intothe environment without the user being aware of the technology behind thescenes. This application is also a part of
mobile computing,
a computing paradigmdesigned for workers who travel outside the boundaries of their organizations orfor travellers of any kind.Mobile computing and commerce are spreading rapidly, replacing or supple-menting wired computing. Mobile computing involves mostly wireless infra-structure. Mobile computing may reshape the entire IT field (see Intel, 2002;Sadeh, 2002; and Menneckeand Strader, 2003). The technologies, applications,and limitations of mobile computing and mobile commerce are the main focusof this chapter. Later in the chapter, we will look briefly at futuristic applicationsof
 pervasive computing.
6.1
M
OBILE
C
OMPUTING AND
C
OMMERCE
: O
 VERVIEW
,B
ENEFITS
,
 AND
D
RIVERS
In the traditional computing environment it was necessary to come to the com-puter to do some work on it. All computers were connected to each other, tonetworks, servers, etc. via wires. This situation limited the use of computers andcreated hardship for people and workers on the move. In particular, salespeople,repair people, service employees, law enforcement agents, and utility workers,can be more effective if they can use information technology while at their jobs
The MobileComputingLandscape

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