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Table Of Contents

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Equilibrium equations of a continuum
1.2.1 Displacements and strains
1.2.4 Equations of dynamical equilibrium
1.2.6 Equations of elastic vibrations (Navier’s equations)
1.3. Hamilton’s principle
1.3.1 General presentation of the formalism
1.3.2 Application to a three-dimensional solid
1.3.2.1 Hamilton’s principle
1.3.2.2 Hilbert functional vector space
1.3.2.3 Variation of the kinetic energy
1.3.2.4 Variation of the strain energy
1.3.2.5 Variation of the external load work
1.3.2.7 Stress tensor and Lagrange’s multipliers
1.3.2.8 Variation of the elastic strain energy
1.3.2.9 Equation of elastic vibrations
1.3.2.10 Conservation of mechanical energy
1.3.2.11 Uniqueness of solution of motion equations
1.4. Elastic waves in three-dimensional media
1.4.2 Harmonic solutions of Navier’s equations
1.4.3 Dilatation and shear elastic waves
1.4.3.1 Irrotational, or potential motion
1.4.3.2 Equivoluminal, or shear motion
1.4.5.3 Reflection of (P) waves on a free boundary
1.4.6 Guided waves
1.4.6.1 Guided (SH) waves in a plane layer
1.4.6.2 Physical interpretation
1.4.7 Standing waves and natural modes of vibration
1.4.7.1 Dilatation plane modes of vibration
1.4.7.2 Dilatation modes of vibration in three dimensions
1.4.7.3 Shear plane modes of vibration
1.5. From solids to structural elements
1.5.1 Saint-Venant’s principle
1.5.2 Shape criterion to reduce the dimension of a problem
1.5.2.2 Shearing of a slender parallelepiped
1.5.2.3 Validity of the simplification for a dynamic loading
1.5.2.4 Structural elements in engineering
Straight beam models: Newtonian approach
an equivalent 1D model
2.1.2 Global and local displacements
2.1.3 Local and global strains
2.1.4 Local and global stresses
2.1.5 Elastic stresses
2.1.6 Equilibrium in terms of generalized stresses
2.1.6.1 Equilibrium of forces
2.1.6.2 Equilibrium of the moments
2.2. Small elastic motion
2.2.1 Longitudinal mode of deformation
2.2.1.1 Local equilibrium
2.2.1.3 Elastic boundary conditions
2.2.1.4 Concentrated loads
2.2.1.5 Intermediate supports
2.2.2 Shear mode of deformation
2.2.2.1 Local equilibrium
2.2.2.2 General solution without external loading
2.2.2.3 Elastic boundary conditions
2.2.2.4 Concentrated loads
2.2.2.5 Intermediate supports
2.2.3 Torsion mode of deformation
2.2.3.1 Torsion without warping
2.2.3.2 Local equilibrium
2.2.3.3 General solution without loading
2.2.3.4 Elastic boundary conditions
2.2.3.5 Concentrated loads
2.2.3.6 Intermediate supports
2.2.3.7 Torsion with warping: Saint Venant’s theory
2.2.4.5 Concentrated loads
2.2.4.7 Application to some problems of practical interest
2.2.5 Formulation of the boundary conditions
2.2.5.1 Elastic impedances
2.2.5.2 Generalized mechanical impedances
2.2.5.3 Homogeneous and inhomogeneous conditions
2.2.6.2 Slenderness ratio and lateral deflection
2.3. Thermoelastic behaviour of a straight beam
2.3.1 3D law of thermal expansion
2.3.2 Thermoelastic axial response
2.3.3 Thermoelastic bending of a beam
2.4. Elastic-plastic beam
2.4.1 Elastic-plastic behaviour under uniform traction
2.4.2 Elastic-plastic behaviour under bending
2.4.2.1 Skin stress
2.4.2.2 Moment-curvature law and failure load
Straight beam models: Hamilton’s principle
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Variational formulation of the straight beam equations
3.2.1 Longitudinal motion
3.2.1.1 Model neglecting the Poisson effect
3.2.2 Bending and transverse shear motion
3.2.2.1 Bending without shear: Bernoulli–Euler model
3.2.2.3 The Rayleigh–Timoshenko dynamic model
3.2.3 Bending of a beam prestressed by an axial force
3.2.3.1 Strain energy and Lagrangian
3.2.3.2 Vibration equation and boundary conditions
3.2.3.4 Follower loads
3.3. Weighted integral formulations
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 Weighted equations of motion
3.3.3 Concentrated loads expressed in terms of distributions
3.3.3.1 External loads
3.3.3.2 Intermediate supports
3.3.4 Adjoint and self-adjoint operators
3.3.5 Generic properties of conservative operators
3.4. Finite element discretization
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Beam in traction-compression
3.4.2.1 Mesh
3.4.2.2 Shape functions
3.4.2.3 Element mass and stiffness matrices
3.4.2.4 Equivalent nodal external loading
3.4.2.5 Assembling the finite element model
3.4.2.6 Boundary conditions
3.4.2.7 Elastic supports and penalty method
3.4.3 Assembling non-coaxial beams
3.4.4 Saving DOF when modelling deformable solids
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Natural modes of vibration of straight beams
4.2.1 Travelling waves of simplified models
4.2.1.1 Longitudinal waves
4.2.1.2 Flexure waves
4.2.2 Standing waves, or natural modes of vibration
4.2.2.1 Longitudinal modes
4.2.2.2 Torsion modes
4.2.2.3 Flexure (or bending) modes
4.2.2.4 Bending coupled with shear modes
4.2.3 Rayleigh’s quotient
4.2.3.2 Beam on elastic foundation
4.2.4 Finite element approximation
4.2.4.1 Longitudinal modes
4.2.4.2 Bending modes
4.2.5 Bending modes of an axially preloaded beam
4.2.5.1 Natural modes of vibration
4.2.5.2 Static buckling analysis
4.3. Modal projection methods
4.3.1 Equations of motion projected onto a modal basis
4.3.2 Deterministic excitations
4.3.2.1 Separable space and time excitation
4.3.2.2 Non-separable space and time excitation
4.3.3 Truncation of the modal basis
4.3.3.1 Criterion based on the mode shapes
4.3.3.2 Spectral criterion
4.3.4 Stresses and convergence rate of modal series
4.4. Substructuring method
4.4.1 Additional stiffnesses
4.4.1.1 Beam in traction-compression with an end spring
4.4.2 Additional inertia
4.4.3 Substructures by using modal projection
4.4.3.1 Basic ideas of the method
4.4.3.3 Multispan beams
4.4.4 Nonlinear connecting elements
4.4.4.1 Axial impact of a beam on a rigid wall
an impact on a rigid wall
4.4.4.3 Elastic collision between two beams
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Kirchhoff–Love model
5.2.1 Love simplifications
5.2.2 Degrees of freedom and global displacements
5.2.3 Membrane displacements, strains and stresses
5.2.3.1 Global and local displacements
5.2.3.2 Global and local strains
5.2.3.3 Membrane stresses
5.3. Membrane equilibrium of rectangular plates
5.3.1 Equilibrium in terms of generalized stresses
5.3.1.1 Local balance of forces
5.3.1.2 Hamilton’s principle
5.3.1.3 Homogeneous boundary conditions
5.3.1.4 Concentrated loads
5.3.2 Elastic stresses
5.3.4 Examples of application in elastostatics
5.3.4.4 Uniform plate stretching
5.3.4.5 In-plane uniform shear loading
5.3.4.6 In-plane shear and bending
5.3.5 Examples of application in thermoelasticity
5.3.5.1 Thermoelastic law
5.3.5.2 Thermal stresses
5.3.5.3 Expansion joints
5.3.5.4 Uniaxial plate expansion
5.3.6 In-plane, or membrane, natural modes of vibration
spatial attenuation of the local response
5.4. Curvilinear coordinates
5.4.1 Linear strain tensor
5.4.2 Equilibrium equations and boundary conditions
5.4.3 Elastic law in curvilinear coordinates
5.4.4 Circular cylinder loaded by a radial pressure
6.1. Kirchhoff–Love hypotheses
6.1.1 Local displacements
6.1.2 Local and global strains
6.1.2.1 Local strains
6.1.2.2 Global flexure and torsional strains
6.1.3 Local and global stresses: bending and torsion
6.2. Bending equations
6.2.1 Formulation in terms of stresses
6.2.1.1 Variation of the inertia terms
6.2.1.2 Variation of the strain energy
6.2.1.3 Local equilibrium without external loads
6.2.2 Boundary conditions
6.2.2.1 Kirchhoff effective shear forces and corner forces
6.2.2.2 Elastic boundary conditions
boundary conditions
6.2.3 Surface and concentrated loadings
6.2.4 Elastic vibrations
6.2.4.1 Global stresses
6.2.4.2 Vibration equations
6.2.4.3 Elastic boundary conditions
6.2.5 Application to a few problems in statics
6.2.5.1 Bending of a plate loaded by edge moments
6.2.5.2 Torsion by corner forces
6.3. Modal analysis
6.3.1 Natural modes of vibration
6.3.1.2 Natural modes of vibration and buckling load
6.4. Curvilinear coordinates
6.4.1 Bending and torsion displacements and strains
6.4.2 Equations of motion
6.4.3 Boundary conditions
6.4.4 Circular plate loaded by a uniform pressure
7.1. Introduction: why curved structures?
7.1.1 Resistance of beams to transverse loads
7.1.2 Resistance of shells and plates to transverse loads
7.2. Arches and circular rings
7.2.1 Geometry and curvilinear metric tensor
7.2.2 Local and global displacements
7.2.3 Local and global strains
7.2.4 Equilibrium equations along the neutral line
7.2.5 Application to a circular ring
7.2.5.2 Breathing mode of vibration of a circular ring
7.2.5.3 Translational modes of vibration
7.2.5.4 Cable stressed by its own weight
7.3. Shells
7.3.1 Geometry and curvilinear metrics
7.3.2 Local and global displacements
7.3.3 Local and global strains
7.3.4 Global membrane stresses
7.3.5 Membrane equilibrium
7.3.6 Axisymmetric shells
7.3.6.1 Geometry and metric tensor
7.3.6.2 Curvature tensor
7.3.7 Applications in elastostatics
7.3.7.1 Spherical shell loaded by uniform pressure
7.3.7.3 Pressurized toroidal shell
7.3.7.4 Spherical cap loaded by its own weight
7.3.7.6 Conical container
8.1. Arches and circular rings
8.1.1 Local and global displacement fields
8.1.2 Tensor of small local strains
8.1.3 Pure bending in the arch plane
8.1.3.1 Equilibrium equations
8.1.3.2 Vibration modes of a circular ring
8.1.4 Model coupling in-plane bending and axial vibrations
8.1.4.1 Coupled equations
8.1.4.2 Vibration modes of a circular ring
8.1.4.3 Arch loaded by its own weight
8.1.5 Model coupling torsion and out-of-plane bending
8.1.5.1 Coupled equations of vibration
8.1.5.2 Natural modes of vibration of a circular ring
8.2. Thin shells
8.2.1 Local and global tensor of small strains
8.2.1.1 Local displacement field
8.3.2.4 Constriction of a circular cylindrical shell
8.3.2.5 Bending about the meridian lines
8.3.2.6 Natural modes of vibration n=0
8.3.3 Bending coupled in z and θ
8.3.3.3 Point-wise punching of a circular cylindrical shell
8.3.3.4 Natural modes of vibration
8.3.3.5 Donnel–Mushtari–Vlasov model
8.3.4 Modal analysis of Love’s equations
8.3.5 Axial loading: global and local responses
Appendices
A.1. Vector and tensor calculus
A.1.1 Definition and notations of scalar, vector and tensor fields
A.1.2 Tensor algebra
A.1.2.1 Contracted product
A.1.2.2 Non-contracted product
A.1.2.3 Cross-product of two vectors in indicial notation
A.2. Differential operators
A.2.1 The Nabla differential operator
A.2.2 The divergence operator
A.2.3 The gradient operator
A.2.4 The curl operator
A.2.5 The Laplace operator
A.2.6 Other useful formulas
A.3. Differential operators in curvilinear and orthonormal coordinates
A.3.1 Metrics
A.3.2.1 Gradient of a scalar and the Nabla operator
A.3.2.2 Gradient of a vector
A.3.2.3 Divergence of a vector
A.3.2.4 Divergence of a tensor of the second rank
A.3.2.5 Curl of a vector
A.3.2.6 Laplacian of a scalar
A.3.2.7 Polar coordinates
A.3.2.8 Cylindrical coordinates
A.4. Plate bending in curvilinear coordinates
A.4.1 Formulation of Hamilton’s principle
A.4.2 Equation of local equilibrium in terms of shear forces
corner forces
A.5. Static equilibrium of a sagging cable loaded by its own weight
A.5.1 Newtonian approach
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Published by Russell Farrugia

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Published by: Russell Farrugia on Oct 27, 2011
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