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Ujt

Ujt

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unijunction transistor
unijunction transistor

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Published by: api-3808323 on Oct 17, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Guru/PEAC2AC/UJT/ February 13, 2006
Unijunction Transistor
1
UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT)

A unijunction transistor, commonly referred to as a UJT, is a three-
terminal device. It is made of a lightly doped (high resistance) silicon bar, which
can either be an n-type or p-type. An n-type UJT using an n-type silicon bar is
shown in Figure-1. A highly doped p-type emitter (E) is placed near to the one
end of the bar. This end of the bar is labeled as Base-1 (B1 ). The other end of
the bar is Base-2 (B2). A p-n junction is formed between the emitter and the bar.
A connection is made to the diffused p-type region and is referred to as the
emitter (E ).

Figure-1: An n-type unijunction transistor
The bar has a high resistance between the two base endsB 1 andB 2.
The total resistance, also known as the interbase resistance
BB
Rof the bar
consists of two resistances in series: one fromB 2 toE,
2
B
R; and the other
betweenE andB 1 ,
1
B
R. Thus, the total resistance is
1
B
2
B
BB
R
R
R
+
=
(1)

The p-n junction behaves like a diode and has a forward voltage drop that can be assume as 0.7 V. The detailed and simplified equivalent circuits of a UJT are given in Figure-2.

Base-2 (B2)
Base-1 (B1)
Emitter (E)
n-type silicon bar
p
n
Guru/PEAC2AC/UJT/ February 13, 2006
Unijunction Transistor
2
Figure-2: (a) Detailed, and (b) simplified equivalent circuits of a UJT
When a positive voltage
BB
Vis applied atB 2 with respect toB 1, the
current in the n-bar is so small that it can be assumed as zero. The UJT is OFF.
Let us now apply a positive voltage
EB
VatE with respect toB 1. The device
remains OFF until
P
EB
V
V=
, where
P
Vis known as the peak-point voltage . As
soon as
EB
Vtends to go above
P
V, the UJT will turn ON if and only if the emitter
current
P
E
I
I\u2265, where
P
Iis the peak-point emitter current . Consider this as
the condition for the device to turn on.

As soon as the emitter current begins to flow, the region between the
emitter junction and the base B1 is flooded by holes (positive charges from the
heavily doped p-region). Consequently, its conductivity goes up and the
resistance of the region

1
B
Rdecreases a lot. This in turn decreases the emitter-

to-base voltage and increases the emitter current. This phenomenon continues until the emitter-to-base voltage becomes very small. This voltage is known as the valley-point emitter voltage (

V
V). The emitter current corresponding to the
valley voltage is called the valley-point emitter current (V
I) as shown in
Figure-3.
B2
B1
E
1
B
R
2
B
R
\u2212
+
D
v
+
_
+
_
BB
V
EB
V
B2
B1
E+
_
+_
BB
V
EB
V
(a)
(b)
Guru/PEAC2AC/UJT/ February 13, 2006
Unijunction Transistor
3
Figure-3: Voltage-current characteristic of a UJT
Note that the peak-point voltage depends upon the applied voltage
between the two bases such that
D
BB
BB1
B
P
V
V
RR
V
+
=
It is commonly expressed as
D
BB
P
V
V
V
+
\u03b7
=
where
BB1
B
RR
=
\u03b7
(2)

is the intrinsic stand-off ratio.
The intrinsic stand-off ratio is usually specified by the manufacturer. For
example, for a 2N4948 or 2N4949 UJT, the following information is available.

Symbol
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
\u03b7
0.55
------
0.86
BB
R,k\u2126
4
7
12
P
I,\u00b5A
------
0.6
2
V
I, mA
2
4
-----
)
SAT
(
EB
V
, V
-----
2.5
3
Max.f, kHz
----
400
-----
EB
V
E
I
P
I
V
I
P
V
V
V
Negative resistance region

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