A unijunction transistor, commonly referred to as a UJT, is a three-
terminal device. It is made of a lightly doped (high resistance) silicon bar, which
can either be an n-type or p-type. An n-type UJT using an n-type silicon bar is
shown in Figure-1. A highly doped p-type emitter (E) is placed near to the one
end of the bar. This end of the bar is labeled as Base-1 (B1 ). The other end of
the bar is Base-2 (B2). A p-n junction is formed between the emitter and the bar.
A connection is made to the diffused p-type region and is referred to as the
emitter (E ).
The p-n junction behaves like a diode and has a forward voltage drop that can be assume as 0.7 V. The detailed and simplified equivalent circuits of a UJT are given in Figure-2.
As soon as the emitter current begins to flow, the region between the
emitter junction and the base B1 is flooded by holes (positive charges from the
heavily doped p-region). Consequently, its conductivity goes up and the
resistance of the region
to-base voltage and increases the emitter current. This phenomenon continues until the emitter-to-base voltage becomes very small. This voltage is known as the valley-point emitter voltage (
is the intrinsic stand-off ratio.
The intrinsic stand-off ratio is usually specified by the manufacturer. For
example, for a 2N4948 or 2N4949 UJT, the following information is available.
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