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Table Of Contents

Cosmology: A Preview
1.1 Units
1.2 The Universe Today
1.2.1 Homogeneity and isotropy
1.2.2 Expansion
1.2.3 Age of the Universe and size of its observable part
1.2.4 Spatial flatness
1.2.5 “Warm” Universe
1.3 Energy Balance in the Present Universe
1.4 Future of the Universe
1.5 Universe in the Past
1.5.1 Recombination
1.5.2 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN)
1.5.3 Neutrino decoupling
1.5.4 Cosmological phase transitions
1.5.5 Generation of baryon asymmetry
1.5.6 Generation of dark matter
1.6 Structure Formation in the Universe
1.7 Inflationary Epoch
Homogeneous Isotropic Universe
2.1 Homogeneous Isotropic Spaces
2.2 Friedmann–Lemaˆıtre–Robertson–Walker Metric
2.3 Redshift. Hubble Law
2.4 Slowing Down of Relative Motion
2.5 Gases of Free Particles in Expanding Universe
Dynamics of Cosmological Expansion
3.1 Friedmann Equation
3.2.1 Non-relativistic matter (“dust”)
3.2.2 Relativistic matter (“radiation”)
3.2.3 Vacuum
3.2.4 General barotropic equation of state p = wρ
3.3 Solutions with Recollapse
4.1 Composition of the Present Universe
4.2 General Properties of Cosmological Evolution
4.3 Transition from Deceleration to Acceleration
4.4 Transition from Radiation Domination to Matter Domination
4.5 Present Age of the Universe and Horizon Size
4.6 Brightness-Redshift Relation for Distant Standard Candles
4.7 Angular Sizes of Distant Objects
4.8 ∗Quintessence
4.8.1 Evolution of scalar field in expanding Universe
5.1 Distribution Functions for Bosons and Fermions
5.2 Entropy in Expanding Universe. Baryon-to-Photon Ratio
5.4 ∗Inequilibrium Processes
6.1 Recombination Temperature in Equilibrium Approximation
6.2 Photon Last Scattering in Real Universe
6.3 ∗Kinetic Equilibrium
7.3 ∗Sterile Neutrinos
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
8.1 Neutron Freeze-Out. Neutron-Proton Ratio
8.3 Kinetics of Nucleosynthesis
8.3.1 Neutron burning, p+n→D +γ
8.3.2 Deuterium burning
primordial plasma
8.4 Comparison of Theory with Observations
Dark Matter
9.1 Cold, Hot and Warm Dark Matter
9.2 Freeze-Out of Heavy Relic
9.3 Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, WIMPs
9.4 ∗Other Applications of the Results of Section 9.2
9.4.2 Heavy neutrino
9.5 Dark Matter Candidates in Particle Physics
9.6 ∗Stable Particles in Supersymmetric Models
9.6.1 Neutralino
9.6.2 Sneutrino
9.6.3 Gravitino
9.7 ∗Other Candidates
9.7.1 Axions and other long-lived particles
9.7.2 Superheavy relic particles
10.1 Order of Phase Transition
10.2 Effective Potential in One-Loop Approximation
10.3 Infrared Problem
Generation of Baryon Asymmetry
11.1 Necessary Conditions for Baryogenesis
11.2 Baryon and Lepton Number Violation in Particle Interactions
11.2.1 Electroweak mechanism
11.2.2 Baryon number violation in Grand Unified Theories
of neutrino
11.3 Asymmetry Generation in Particle Decays
11.4 Baryon Asymmetry and Neutrino Masses: Leptogenesis
11.5 Electroweak Baryogenesis
11.5.1 Departure from thermal equilibrium
11.5.2 ∗Thick wall baryogenesis
11.5.3 ∗Thin wall case
11.6 ∗Affleck–Dine Mechanism
11.6.1 Scalar fields carrying baryon number
11.6.2 Asymmetry generation
11.7 Concluding Remarks
12.1 Production of Topological Defects in the Early Universe
12.2 ∗’t Hooft–Polyakov Monopoles
12.2.1 Magnetic monopoles in gauge theories
12.2.2 Kibble mechanism
12.2.3 Residual abundance: the monopole problem
12.3 ∗Cosmic Strings
12.3.1 String solutions
12.3.2 Gas of cosmic strings
12.3.3 Deficit angle
12.3.4 Strings in the Universe
12.4 ∗Domain Walls
12.5 ∗Textures
12.6 ∗Hybrid Topological Defects
12.7 ∗Non-topological Solitons: Q-balls
12.7.1 Two-field model
12.7.2 Models with flat directions
A.1 Tensors in Curved Space-Time
A.2 Covariant Derivative
A.3 Riemann Tensor
A.4 Gravitational Field Equations
A.5 Conformally Related Metrics
A.7 Particle Motion in Gravitational Field
A.8 Newtonian Limit in General Relativity
B.1 Field Content and Lagrangian
B.2 Global Symmetries
B.3 C-, P-, T-Transformations
B.4 Quark Mixing
B.5 Effective Fermi Theory
B.6 Peculiarities of Strong Interactions
C.1 Oscillations and Mixing
C.1.1 Vacuum oscillations
C.1.2 Three-neutrino oscillations in special cases
C.1.3 Mikheev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect
C.2 Experimental Discoveries
C.2.1 Solar neutrinos and KamLAND
C.2.2 Atmospheric neutrinos, K2K and MINOS
C.2.3 CHOOZ: limit on |Ue3|
C.3 Oscillation Parameters
C.4 Dirac and Majorana Masses. Sterile Neutrinos
C.5 Search for Neutrino Masses
D.2 Fermionic Fields: Antiperiodic Boundary Conditions
D.3 Perturbation Theory
D.4 One-Loop Effective Potential
D.5 Debye Screening
Books and Reviews
Bibliography
Index
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INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF THE EARLY UNIVERSE: Hot Big Bang Theory by DMITRY S GORBUNOV and VALERY A RUBAKOV

INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF THE EARLY UNIVERSE: Hot Big Bang Theory by DMITRY S GORBUNOV and VALERY A RUBAKOV

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Published by Crystal
This book is written from the viewpoint of a deep connection between cosmology and particle physics. It presents the results and ideas on both the homogeneous and isotropic Universe at the hot stage of its evolution and in later stages. The main chapters describe in a systematic and pedagogical way established facts and concepts on the early and the present Universe. The comprehensive treatment, hence, serves as a modern introduction to this rapidly developing field of science. To help in reading the chapters without having to constantly consult other texts, essential materials from General Relativity and the theory of elementary particles are collected in the appendices. Various hypotheses dealing with unsolved problems of cosmology, and often alternative to each other, are discussed at a more advanced level. These concern dark matter, dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry, etc.
This book is written from the viewpoint of a deep connection between cosmology and particle physics. It presents the results and ideas on both the homogeneous and isotropic Universe at the hot stage of its evolution and in later stages. The main chapters describe in a systematic and pedagogical way established facts and concepts on the early and the present Universe. The comprehensive treatment, hence, serves as a modern introduction to this rapidly developing field of science. To help in reading the chapters without having to constantly consult other texts, essential materials from General Relativity and the theory of elementary particles are collected in the appendices. Various hypotheses dealing with unsolved problems of cosmology, and often alternative to each other, are discussed at a more advanced level. These concern dark matter, dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry, etc.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Crystal on Oct 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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