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Published by api-3776246
Bài giảng: Giám sát thi công và công tác nghiệm thu bê tông cốt thép.\
Biên soạn: PGS Lê Kiều, ĐH Kiến Trúc hà Nội.\
Xuất bản tháng 1-2001
Bài giảng: Giám sát thi công và công tác nghiệm thu bê tông cốt thép.\
Biên soạn: PGS Lê Kiều, ĐH Kiến Trúc hà Nội.\
Xuất bản tháng 1-2001

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Published by: api-3776246 on Oct 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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B\u00e9 x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng
Ch- \u00acng tr\u00d7nh b\u00e5i d- \u00ecng k\u00fc s-
t- v\u00can gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng
B\u00b5i gi\u00b6ng
M\u00abn H\u00e4c
Gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t thi c\u00abng v\u00b5 nghi\u00d6m thu
c\u00abng t\u00b8c b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p
Ng\u00ad\u00eai so\u00b9n :
PGs L\u00a3 KI\u00d2u
Tr\u00ad\u00eang \u00a7\u00b9i h\u00e4c Ki\u00d5n tr\u00f3c H\u00b5 n\u00e9i
H\u00b5 n\u00e9i, 1-2002
gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t thi c\u00abng v\u00b5 nghi\u00d6m thu
c\u00b8c c\u00abng t\u00b8c b\u00aa t\u00abng c\u00e8t th\u00d0p
trong c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh d\u00a9n d\u00f4ng v\u00b5 c\u00abng nghi\u00d6p
Ng\u00ad\u00eai so\u00b9n b\u00b5i gi\u00b6ng v\u00b5 tr\u00d7nh b\u00b5y:
PGs L\u00aa Ki\u00d2u
Ch\u00f1 nhi\u00d6m B\u00e9 m\u00abn
C\u00abng ngh\u00d6 X\u00a9y d\u00f9ng
Tr\u00ad\u00eang \u00a7\u00b9i h\u00e4c Ki\u00d5n tr\u00f3c H\u00b5 n\u00e9i
I. Ph\u00c7n m\u00eb \u00ae\u00c7u
\u00a7i\u00d2u 15 trong Ch\u00ad\u00acng Ch\u00d5 \u00ae\u00e9 Kinh t\u00d5 c\u00f1a b\u00b6n Hi\u00d5n ph\u00b8p n\u00ad\u00edc C\u00e9ng
Ho\u00b5 X\u00b7 H\u00e9i Ch\u00f1 Ngh\u00dca Vi\u00d6t Nam ghi r\u00e2:
" Nh\u00b5 n\u00ad\u00edc ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n n\u00d2n kinh t\u00d5 h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 nhi\u00d2u th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n theo c\u00ac ch\u00d5 th\u00de
tr\u00ad\u00eang c\u00e3 s\u00f9 qu\u00b6n l\u00fd c\u00f1a Nh\u00b5 n\u00ad\u00edc, theo \u00ae\u00denh h\u00ad\u00edng x\u00b7 h\u00e9i ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca. "

D\u00f9 th\u00b6o B\u00b8o c\u00b8o ch\u00ddnh tr\u00de c\u00f1a Ban Ch\u00cap h\u00b5nh Trung \u00ad\u00acng \u00a7\u00b6ng CSVN kho\u00b8 VIII tr\u00d7nh \u00a7\u00b9i h\u00e9i \u00ae\u00b9i bi\u00d3u to\u00b5n qu\u00e8c l\u00c7n th\u00f8 IX c\u00e3 m\u00e9t \u00ae\u00d2 m\u00f4c : " Ti\u00d5p t\u00f4c t\u00b9o l\u00cbp \u00ae\u00e5ng b\u00e9 c\u00b8c y\u00d5u t\u00e8 c\u00f1a kinh t\u00d5 th\u00de tr\u00ad\u00eang; t\u00a8ng c\u00ad\u00eang vai tr\u00df qu\u00b6n l\u00fd c\u00f1a Nh\u00b5 n\u00ad\u00edc". Trong \u00ae\u00d2 m\u00f4c n\u00b5y ghi r\u00e2: " Th\u00f3c \u00ae\u00c8y s\u00f9 h\u00d7nh th\u00b5nh , ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n v\u00b5 t\u00f5ng b\u00ad\u00edc ho\u00b5n thi\u00d6n c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i th\u00de tr\u00ad\u00eang theo \u00ae\u00denh h\u00ad\u00edng x\u00b7 h\u00e9i ch\u00f1 ngh\u00dca. . . "

Trong t\u00b8c ph\u00c8m " Kinh t\u00d5 h\u00e4c - ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch kinh t\u00d5 vi m\u00ab " t\u00b8c gi\u00b6 Rodrigue Tremblay, gi\u00b8o s\u00ad kinh t\u00d5 - t\u00b5i ch\u00ddnh qu\u00e8c t\u00d5, tr\u00ad\u00eang \u00a7\u00b9i h\u00e4c Montr\u00d0al , Canada , vi\u00d5t : " Quy lu\u00cbt c\u00ac b\u00b6n v\u00b5 ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n c\u00f1a kinh t\u00d5 ( th\u00de tr\u00ad\u00eang ) ch\u00d8 r\u00e2 l\u00b5 c\u00b8c c\u00b8 nh\u00a9n v\u00b5 c\u00b8c t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c x\u00b7 h\u00e9i b\u00e1 ti\u00d2n c\u00f1a ra \u00ae\u00d3 mong \u00ae\u00b9t m\u00e9t l\u00eei \u00ddch ho\u00c6c m\u00f4c ti\u00aau \u00ae\u00denh tr\u00ad\u00edc v\u00edi chi ph\u00dd \u00ddt nh\u00cat. \u00a7i\u00d2u n\u00b5y c\u00e3 ngh\u00dca l\u00b5 khi ph\u00b6i ch\u00e4n m\u00e9t v\u00cbt, m\u00e9t c\u00f1a c\u00b6i, m\u00e9t k\u00fc thu\u00cbt s\u00b6n xu\u00cat, hay l\u00b5 trong c\u00b8c v\u00cbt c\u00e3 c\u00efng m\u00f4c \u00ae\u00ddch s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng, ng\u00ad\u00eai ta s\u00cf ch\u00e4n l\u00f9a th\u00f8 n\u00b5o r\u00ce nh\u00cat". N\u00e3i m\u00e9t c\u00b8ch to\u00b8n h\u00e4c th\u00d7 m\u00e4i ng\u00ad\u00eai ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng trong kinh t\u00d5 th\u00de tr\u00ad\u00eang \u00ae\u00d2u l\u00b5 nh\u00f7ng ng\u00ad\u00eai gi\u00b6i b\u00b5i to\u00b8nmini/Max. B\u00b5i to\u00b8n n\u00b5y ph\u00b8t bi\u00d3u nh\u00ad sau: m\u00e4i ng\u00ad\u00eai \u00ae\u00d2u mu\u00e8n b\u00e1 ra chi ph\u00dd \u00ddt nh\u00cat ( mini ) \u00ae\u00d3 thu v\u00d2 l\u00eei \u00ddch cho m\u00d7nh nhi\u00d2u nh\u00cat ( Max ). Ng\u00ad\u00eai mua mu\u00e8n b\u00e1 ti\u00d2n ra \u00ddt nh\u00cat \u00ae\u00d3 \u00aeem v\u00d2 h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 cho m\u00d7nh c\u00e3 nhi\u00d2u l\u00eei \u00ddch nh\u00cat, s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng thu\u00cbn l\u00eei nh\u00cat , ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng cao nh\u00cat. Ng\u00ad\u00eai b\u00b8n l\u00b9i mu\u00e8n cho s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec b\u00b8n v\u00edi chi ph\u00dd ch\u00d5 t\u00b9o , chi ph\u00dd l\u00adu th\u00abng \u00ddt nh\u00cat nh\u00adng l\u00b9i thu v\u00d2 l\u00eei nhu\u00cbn cao nh\u00cat

(Introduction \u00b5 l'analyse des probl\u00ccmes \u00d0conomiques de toute soci\u00d0t\u00d0,
Rodrigue Tramblay, Les \u00d0ditions HRWLTEE - Montr\u00d0al ).

S\u00f9 mua b\u00b8n \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec, hay n\u00e3i c\u00b8ch kh\u00b8c th\u00d7 l\u00eai gi\u00b6i c\u00f1a b\u00b5i to\u00b8n mini/Max ch\u00ddn l\u00b5 vi\u00d6c c\u00a9n nh\u00bec tr\u00aan c\u00ac s\u00eb dung ho\u00b5 l\u00eei \u00ddch c\u00f1a hai b\u00aan mua v\u00b5 b\u00b8n. C\u00b8i c\u00c7u n\u00e8i gi\u00f7a ng\u00ad\u00eai mua v\u00b5 ng\u00ad\u00eai b\u00b8n ch\u00ddnh l\u00b5ti\u00aau chu\u00c8n ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00f1a h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8. Trong c\u00b8c h\u00eep \u00ae\u00e5ng th\u00ad\u00acng m\u00b9i , d\u00dech v\u00f4, th\u00d7 ti\u00aau chu\u00c8n h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8, d\u00dech v\u00f4 \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec coi l\u00b5 \u00aei\u00d2u ki\u00d6n h\u00eep \u00ae\u00e5ng h\u00d5t s\u00f8c quan tr\u00e4ng.

Trong x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f2ng v\u00cby , ti\u00aau chu\u00c8n ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m l\u00b5 c\u00ac s\u00eb cho nh\u00f7ng h\u00eep \u00ae\u00e5ng t\u00ad v\u00can v\u00b5 thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 , thi c\u00abng x\u00a9y l\u00bep, mua b\u00b8n thi\u00d5t b\u00de. Nh\u00adng kh\u00abng ph\u00b6i nh\u00b5 \u00ae\u00c7u t\u00ad n\u00b5o c\u00f2ng am t\u00ad\u00eang v\u00d2 qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh s\u00b6n xu\u00cat x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng c\u00ac b\u00b6n. C\u00ac quan t\u00ad v\u00can \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec Nh\u00b5 n\u00ad\u00edc giao cho nhi\u00d6m v\u00f4 gi\u00f3p cho ch\u00f1 \u00ae\u00c7u t\u00ad trong vi\u00d6c ki\u00d3m \u00ae\u00denh , gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t thi c\u00abng v\u00b5 nghi\u00d6m thu ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh.

C\u00abng ngh\u00d6 gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t vi\u00d6c \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh tr\u00ad\u00edc \u00ae\u00a9y vai tr\u00df K\u00fc thu\u00cbtA \u00ae\u00b7 th\u00f9c hi\u00d6n nh\u00adng khi m\u00f8c \u00ae\u00e9 ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p c\u00f1a c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh ng\u00b5y m\u00e9t l\u00edn, n\u00d5u ph\u00b6i t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c b\u00e9 m\u00b8y k\u00fc thu\u00cbtA \u00ae\u00f1 \u00ae\u00b8p \u00f8ng nhi\u00d6m v\u00f4 th\u00d7 s\u00cf r\u00cat c\u00e5ng k\u00d2nh m\u00b5 t\u00e8n k\u00d0m n\u00aan c\u00c7n thi\u00d5t ph\u00b6i chuy\u00aan nghi\u00d6p ho\u00b8 l\u00f9c l\u00ad\u00eeng n\u00b5y. Nhi\u00d6m v\u00f4 n\u00b5y ng\u00b5y nay \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec giao cho c\u00b8c k\u00fc s\u00ad\u00eb c\u00ac quan t\u00ad v\u00can v\u00b5 thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 ho\u00c6c nh\u00f7ng b\u00e9 ph\u00cbn chuy\u00aan tr\u00b8ch c\u00f1a c\u00b8c T\u00e6ng C\u00abng ty X\u00a9y d\u00f9ng.

\u00a7\u00d3 thu\u00cbn l\u00eei cho vi\u00d6c gi\u00b8m s\u00b8t ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng v\u00b5 nghi\u00d6m thu c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh, ch\u00f3ng ta ph\u00b6i coi vi\u00d6c \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o ch\u00cat l\u00ad\u00eeng l\u00b5 t\u00e6ng th\u00d3 trong to\u00b5n b\u00e9 kh\u00a9u th\u00f9c hi\u00d6n d\u00f9 \u00b8n.

C\u00b8c d\u00f9 \u00b8n \u00ae\u00c7u t\u00ad c\u00e3 x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng v\u00e8n ng\u00a9n s\u00b8ch Nh\u00b5 n\u00ad\u00edc tr\u00ad\u00edc khi \u00ae\u00cau th\u00c7u x\u00a9y l\u00bep ph\u00b6i \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec c\u00ac quan c\u00e3 th\u00c8m quy\u00d2n ph\u00aa duy\u00d6t thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt v\u00b5 t\u00e6ng d\u00f9 to\u00b8n. Quy ch\u00d5 qu\u00b6n l\u00fd \u00ae\u00c7u t\u00ad v\u00b5 x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng ban h\u00b5nh theo Ngh\u00de \u00ae\u00denh s\u00e8 52/1999/N\u00a7-CP ng\u00b5y8-7-1999 quy \u00ae\u00denh c\u00f4 th\u00d3 v\u00d2 vi\u00d6c th\u00c8m \u00ae\u00denh thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt v\u00b5 t\u00e6ng d\u00f9 to\u00b8n. C\u00ac quan th\u00c8m \u00ae\u00denh thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt v\u00b5 t\u00e6ng d\u00f9 to\u00b8n c\u00e3 th\u00d3 thu\u00aa chuy\u00aan gia ho\u00c6c t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c t\u00ad v\u00can chuy\u00aan ng\u00b5nh c\u00efng tham gia th\u00c8m \u00ae\u00denh, nh\u00adng \u00ae\u00acn v\u00de thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec th\u00c8m \u00ae\u00denh nh\u00f7ng thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 l\u00b5 s\u00b6n ph\u00c8m c\u00f1a c\u00abng ty m\u00d7nh l\u00cbp ra.

N\u00e9i dung th\u00c8m \u00ae\u00denh \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec ghi r\u00e2 trong quy\u00d5t \u00ae\u00denh s\u00e8 17/2000/Q\u00a7-
BXD ng\u00b5y02-8-2000 c\u00f1a B\u00e9 tr\u00ad\u00ebng B\u00e9 X\u00a9y d\u00f9ng ( \u00aei\u00d2u 10 ).

V\u00d2 v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2 ph\u00ef h\u00eep c\u00f1a thi\u00d5t k\u00d5 k\u00fc thu\u00cbt v\u00edi Quy chu\u00c8n x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng Vi\u00d6t nam v\u00b5 ti\u00aau chu\u00c8n k\u00fc thu\u00cbt \u00ae\u00ad\u00eec \u00b8p d\u00f4ng, l\u00adu \u00fd v\u00edi nh\u00f7ng c\u00abng tr\u00d7nh x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng t\u00b9i Lai Ch\u00a9u v\u00b5 S\u00acn La n\u00bbm trong khu v\u00f9c c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00dea ch\u00can Imax= 8 (MSK-64) . Theo quan h\u00d6 gi\u00f7a c\u00b8c thang c\u00cap \u00ae\u00e9ng \u00ae\u00cat th\u00d7 khu v\u00f9c Lai Ch\u00a9u v\u00b5 S\u00acn La l\u00b5 v\u00efng c\u00e3 \u00ae\u00e9ng \u00ae\u00cat theo thang \u00ae\u00e9JMA t\u00f5 5 \u00ae\u00d5n6 v\u00b5 theo thang MM l\u00b5 v\u00efng c\u00e3 c\u00cap \u00ae\u00e9ng \u00ae\u00cat trong thang8.

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