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selectedverbs

selectedverbs

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 In the name of Allah
 
A Few Selected Verbs
Used in the Holy Qur'an
Detailed conjugation lists of selected verbs for ease of learning
 
ii
In the name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful
PREFACE
All praise be to Allah, and may peace and blessings of Allah be upon his Prophet, Muhammad.Allah says very explicitly in His Book, " (This is) a Book (the Qur'an) which We have sent down to you, full of blessings that theymay ponder over its verses, and that men of understanding may remember [38:29]." If we don't understand the Book, how can weponder on its verses!Ahadith also emphasize the learning of the Qur’an. The Prophet of Allah, Muhammad, pbuh, said, "The best among you are thosewho have learnt the Qur'an and teach it (to others)" [Bukhari].With the objective of learning to understand the Qur’an in mind, we had prepared a booklet titled, “80% of Qur’anic Words.” In thatbooklet, a star (*) was placed next to a few selected verbs. This small book gives detailed conjugation lists (for masculine gender)of those marked verbs as an aid to students. Please keep the following points in mind while studying this booklet.To explain some points, grammar terminologies have been used below. A reader can understand many of these things from theexamples without worrying too much about the relevant grammar terminologies. It is humbly suggested here that the teacher aswell as the students (except those who are Arabic language learners) may better avoid these terminologies. Otherwise, as hasbeen observed in many cases, the students may be afraid of learning the Arabic and stop learning it altogether.
No. of words and their meanings:
The number given in brackets on the top right side of every page shows thenumber of times this verb has come in the Qur’an in its various forms.
Only common meanings:
In this booklet, only the common meanings of the verbs are given. Depending uponthe context, the meanings of the same verb may change.
Root letters and Verbal noun:
Top middle of every page shows the root letters of the verb. On the top left side,the verbal noun of the corresponding verb along with its translation is provided.
Pronouns:
On the right side of the column for Past Tense, relevant Detached Pronouns (
       
) are given.The corresponding Attached Pronouns (
    
) are provided on the left side of the column for Present Tense.Please note that the Attached Pronouns can come with any verb, noun, or preposition. To emphasize this point, abox with these forms (
 ،ا ، 
) is provided just below the column of Attached Pronoun.
Past Tense verbs in italics:
The verbal forms for past tense are given in italics. The verb in past tensecorresponds to an action which is already completed. Consequently the letters have been bent (italicized). This isdone just to help the students distinguish it from present tense verbal forms which are kept in normal upright font.
Dual forms:
The dual forms are sparingly used in the Qur’an. Consequently, to save space and to give it lesseremphasis, the fontsize for these forms is kept small.
Conjugations of Past tense verbs (
ِ  
)
: Depending upon the person (3
rd
, 2
nd
, or 1
st
), gender (masculineor feminine), and number (singular or plural), ending words of the corresponding forms of the past tense change.By this change we know whether this verb (past tense) is singular or plural, 3
rd
, 2
nd
or 1
st
person, and feminine ormasculine. To remember this feature, here is an example. If you are standing on a road, you can see thebackside of a departed car, truck or jeep. A look at the backside is enough for you to tell which type of car hasgone. Similarly, if you are standing on a runway, you can see only the backside (tail section) of an aeroplane thathas just taken off. Consequently, at the bottom of the column for past tense forms in the chart, a balloon of letters(
-،َ -َ  ،ُت ،ْُ ،َ ت ،اوُ
) is attached to an aeroplane that has just taken off.
Conjugations of Imperfect tense verbs
 
(
عِرَُ  
)
: Unlike past tense verbs, for conjugations of Imperfecttense verbs occur, the changes occur at the start of the verbs (except for ending terms like ).These changes ( ) are shown by descending aeroplane (meaning Imperfect tense). These twopictures are shown as aid to the understanding of the reader or student: For past tense verbs the tail of theaeroplane changes and for the Imperfect tense verbs the mouth or nose of the aeroplane changes.
Active verb (
فوُْَ  
) and Passive verb (
لُْَ  
) for both past and imperfect tenses:
Compared tothe active voice form of a verb, the diacritics (
-،َ -،ِ -ُ
) on the first three letters of the same active form is changedto make it passive. For example
َ َ َ  
: to open;
َ ِ ُ 
: is opened, in case of past tense. This system ofreplacement of diacritics is followed for all the conjugations of past tense. Similarly in case of present tense
ُَ ْَ  
:is opening; and
ُَ ْُ 
: is being opened. This rule is applied for all the conjugations of present tense. In view ofthis, only singular, masculine third person conjugations are given in one line for passive voice forms. It isexpected that you can construct the remaining conjugations of the passive voice.
Transitive verb (
يََُ  
)
: Transitive verb is a verb which needs an object; for example
fataha 
,
dharaba 
, etc.There are two types of transitive verbs: active and passive. The passive participle (
ل ا
) as well as thepassive voice forms for such verbs are given on pages wherever transitive verbs appear.
 
iii
Intransitive verb (
مِز  
)
: Intransitive verb is a verb which does not need an object; for example,
َ َ هَ ذ ،َ مَ  
, etc.Such verbs do not have a passive participle or passive voice forms. For this reason, the passive participle andconjugations of passive voice are left blank on pages where intransitive verbs appear.
Triliteral verbs (
د   
) and triliteral verbs with extra letters (VEL
    
)
: Both masculineand feminine conjugations of the triliteral verb (
َ َ َ  
) or the Verb type 1 (VT-1) and trilateral verb with extra letters(Verb types or VT-2 till VT-10) such as
،َ َ ْَ أ ،َ َ َ  ،َ  َ  ...
are given (pages 1, 2, 28, 29, 33, 34, 37, 38, 48, 49, 52,53, 56, and 57). For other verbs, conjugations of only masculine forms are given. The number given with VTindicates the verb type to which the verb belongs.
Note
: If you are teaching a class to help students understand the basics of Qur’an, you can make a poster byenlarging the page containing conjugations of
َ َ َ  
(masculine only). You can put this poster beside the blackboard. You can make use of this poster during practice of different verbs or while explaining conjugation of a givenverb.
An efficient and an effective way of teaching the conjugations of
َََ 
:In general, it is observed that teaching the “Conjugations of
َ َ َ  
” is the most difficult lesson of an Arabic class. Students startdropping the course from this moment onwards. Along with pronunciation, if hand movements are also practiced, then theseconjugations will be easily understood by the students.1. When you say
َ َ َ  
(He has done), point the index finger of the right hand towards your right as if that person issitting on your right. When you say
اُَ َ  
(They did), point all the four fingers of your right hand towards your right.In a class, both the teacher and the student should practice this together.2. When you say
َ ْَ َ  
(You did), point the index finger of your right hand towards your front. When you say
َ َ  ْُْ 
(Allof you did), point all the four fingers of your right hand towards your students. In a class, the teacher should pointhis fingers towards the students and the students should point their fingers towards the teacher.3. When you say
ُْَ َ  
(I did), point the index finger of your right hand towards yourself. When you say
ْَ َ  َ   
(we did)point all the four fingers of your right hand towards yourself.4. The same procedure of fingers pointing can be used for practicing the different conjugations of Imperfect tenseverbs also. To distinguish between the past tense and the present tense, you may pronounce all the past tenseforms and move your right hand at a lower level while pointing towards right, in front, or yourself. For presenttense, raise your right hand at a higher level and pronounce the present tense verbs with a higher pitch (as if youare saying that you did it and you are still doing it!).5. When you say
 ْَ ْِ ا
, point the index finger of your right hand in front of you and move your hand down from araised position as if you are giving a command to somebody standing in front of you. When you say
اُَ ْِ ا
, thesame action can be repeated by all the four fingers of the right hand.6. When you say
ْَ ْَ  َ 
, point the index finger of your right hand in front of you and move your hand from left to rightas if you are directing somebody not to do something. When you say
اُَ ْَ  َ 
, the same action can be repeatedwith the four fingers of the right hand instead of just one.7. Steps 1 to 3 can also be used for detached pronouns and attached pronouns. However, for attached pronouns,the exercise should be done along with any noun (for e.g.,
 َ ر ،ُ َ ر َ  َ ر ، َ ر ،ْُ َ ر ،َ  َ ر ،ْُ 
), a preposition (for e.g.,
َ َ  ،ِ  ،ْُَ  ،َ َ  ،ْُَ  ،َ  
)
 
, or a transitive verb (for e.g.,
َ َ َ َ  ،ِ َ َ َ  ،ْُَ َ َ  ،َ َ َ َ  ،ْُَ َ َ  ،ُَ َ َ  
).
References:
Many books have been referred to in preparation of this booklet. Most important one among these is the book(
 
هرا تردو ا نا ظ   
) prepared originally at the Arabic Language institute of King Saud Universityby Dr. Muhammad Hussain Abulfatooh and published by Maktaba Lebanon, Lebanon (1990). For the meanings of Arabicwords, the book, “Vocabulary of the Holy Qur’an” by Dr. Abdullah Abbas Nadwi has been extensively used.
Abbreviations:
mg 
masc. gender
fg 
fem. gender
br.pl 
broken plural
sg 
singular
dl 
dual
pl 
plural
sb 
somebody
st 
something
ss 
somebody or somethingVT Verb type (from 1 till 10) VEL: triliteral Verbs with Extra Letters (
    
); from VT-2 till VT-10
Many people have contributed in the compilation and review of this booklet. May Allah reward them all. May He alsoprotect us from errors and forgive us if they have occurred in this booklet. If you find any error, please notify us so that it canbe rectified in future editions. We appreciate your suggestions and comments. May Allah reward you for the help.

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