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Dieu Khien Thiet Bi Qua Dien Thoai

Dieu Khien Thiet Bi Qua Dien Thoai

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Published by: api-26943302 on Oct 17, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Lua\u00e4n Va\u00ean :
Thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 ma\u00efch \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa qua \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng da\u00e2y thoa\u00efi
GVHD: Nguye\u00e3n Huy Hu\u00f8ng
-1 -
SVTH : Pha\u00efm Ho\u00e0ng Phong
PHA\u00c0N MO\u00c4T
Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng I LY\u00d9 THUYE\u00c1T TO\u00c5NG QUAN
I./ Ta\u00e0m quan tro\u00efng va\u00f8 \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng cu\u00fba \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa.

\u00d1a\u00e1t n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c ta \u00f1ang tre\u00e2n \u00f1a\u00f8 pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n va\u00f8 ho\u00e4i nha\u00e4p v\u00f4\u00f9i ne\u00e0n kinh te\u00e1 the\u00e1 gi\u00f4\u00f9i. Mo\u00e4t \u00f1a\u00e1t n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n kho\u00e2ng the\u00e5 d\u00f6\u00efa va\u00f8o mo\u00e4t nga\u00f8nh no\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p, la\u00e2m nghie\u00e4p, ng\u00f6 nghie\u00e4p ma\u00f8 ca\u00e0n pha\u00fbi co\u00f9 mo\u00e4t nga\u00f8nh co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e0p pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n ma\u00efnh. Mo\u00e4t ne\u00e0n co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e0p pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n ma\u00efnh luo\u00e2n \u00f1i \u00f1o\u00e2i v\u00f4\u00f9i ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 ma\u00f9y mo\u00f9c tinh vi h\u00f4n, ph\u00f6\u00f9c ta\u00efp h\u00f4n. V\u00f4\u00f9i ne\u00e0n co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p pha\u00f9t trie\u00e5n nh\u00f6 the\u00e1, \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa \u00f1o\u00f9ng vai tro\u00f8 quan tro\u00efng trong co\u00e2ng cuo\u00e4c co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p ho\u00f9a hie\u00e4n \u00f1a\u00efi ho\u00f9a \u00f1a\u00e1t n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c.

Trong co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p, ta\u00efi ca\u00f9c lo\u00f8 pha\u00fbn \u00f6\u00f9ng, ca\u00f9c nha\u00f8 ma\u00f9y, hay ta\u00efi nh\u00f6\u00f5ng n\u00f4i co\u00f9 m\u00f6\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00e4 nguy hie\u00e5m cao ma\u00f8 con ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i kho\u00e2ng the\u00e5 tie\u00e1p ca\u00e4n \u00f1e\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc. Ta pha\u00fbi ca\u00e0n \u00f1e\u00e1n bo\u00e4 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa \u00f1e\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n. Trong co\u00e2ng cuo\u00e4c nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u vu\u00f5 tru\u00ef, \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng trong ca\u00f9c phi thuye\u00e0n kho\u00e2ng ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i la\u00f9i, ca\u00f9c ta\u00f8u do tha\u00f9m kho\u00e2ng gian.

\u00d1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa kho\u00e2ng nh\u00f6\u00f5ng phu\u00efc vu\u00ef cho co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p, qua\u00e2n s\u00f6\u00ef, hay nghie\u00e2n c\u00f6\u00f9u khoa ho\u00efc, ma\u00f8 no\u00f9 co\u00f8n go\u00f9p mo\u00e4t pha\u00e0n kho\u00e2ng nho\u00fb va\u00f8o phu\u00efc vu\u00ef cho nhu ca\u00e0u cuo\u00e4c so\u00e1ng ha\u00e8ng nga\u00f8y cu\u00fba chu\u00f9ng ta.

Trong co\u00e2ng cuo\u00e4c co\u00e2ng nghie\u00e4p ho\u00f9a hie\u00e4n \u00f1a\u00efi hoa\u00f9 \u00f1a\u00e1t n\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c. Con ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i pha\u00fbi lao \u00f1o\u00e4ng ca\u00e4n l\u00f6\u00efc, luo\u00e2n \u00f4\u00fb c\u00f4 quan, x\u00ed nghie\u00e4p, hay ta\u00efi co\u00e2ng tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng. Ne\u00e2n \u00edt co\u00f9 th\u00f4\u00f8i gian \u00f4\u00fb nha\u00f8. V\u00ec va\u00e4y \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa giu\u00f9p chu\u00f9ng ta kho\u00e2ng ca\u00e0n pha\u00fbi ve\u00e0 nha\u00f8 ma\u00f8 cu\u00f5ng co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u \u00f1o\u00f9ng nha\u00e9c ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2, hoa\u00ebc t\u00f6\u00ef \u00f1o\u00e4ng ba\u00f9o cho ta bie\u00e1t khi \u00f4\u00fb nha\u00f8 co\u00f9 s\u00f6\u00ef co\u00e1.

II./ Ca\u00f9c da\u00efng die\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa.
D\u00f6\u00efa va\u00f8o ca\u00f9c \u00f6\u00f9ng du\u00efng th\u00f6\u00efc tie\u00e5n cu\u00fba \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa ta co\u00f9 the\u00e5 chia la\u00f8m hai
da\u00efng . \u00d1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa ba\u00e8ng vo\u00e2 tuye\u00e1n va\u00f8 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa ba\u00e8ng h\u00f6\u00fbu tuye\u00e1n.
1./ \u00d1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa ba\u00e8ng vo\u00e2 tuye\u00e1n.

Ta co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5 t\u00f6\u00f8 xa ba\u00e8ng tia sa\u00f9ng ho\u00e0ng ngoa\u00efi, hay so\u00f9ng sie\u00e2u a\u00e2m. Mo\u00e2i tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng truye\u00e0n la\u00f8 kho\u00e2ng kh\u00ed.V\u00f4\u00f9i tia ho\u00e0ng ngoa\u00efi ta ch\u00e6 co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 \u00f4\u00fb khoa\u00fbng ca\u00f9ch ga\u00e0n. V\u00ec va\u00e4y no\u00f9 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc \u00f6\u00f9ng d\u00f6\u00efng nhie\u00e0u cho ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 da\u00e2n du\u00efng.

2./ \u00d1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa ba\u00e8ng h\u00f6\u00fbu tuye\u00e1n.

V\u00f4\u00f9i da\u00f8ng \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n na\u00f8y ta l\u00f4\u00efi du\u00efng va\u00f8o \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng truye\u00e0n cu\u00fba \u00f1ie\u00e4n thoa\u00efi\u00f1e\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 t\u00f6\u00f8 xa. Co\u00f9 the\u00e5 s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng da\u00e2y song ha\u00f8nh, ca\u00f9p \u00f1o\u00e0ng tru\u00efc, ca\u00f9p quang \u00f1e\u00e5 truye\u00e0n ta\u00fbi t\u00edn hie\u00e4u.

a./ Da\u00e2y song ha\u00f8nh.
Lua\u00e4n Va\u00ean :
Thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 ma\u00efch \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa qua \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng da\u00e2y thoa\u00efi
GVHD: Nguye\u00e3n Huy Hu\u00f8ng
-2 -
SVTH : Pha\u00efm Ho\u00e0ng Phong

Loa\u00efi da\u00e2y na\u00f8y cho\u00e1ng a\u00e5m, cho\u00e1ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc nhie\u00e5u \u00f1ie\u00e4n t\u00f6\u00f8, Tuy nhie\u00e2n khi s\u00f6\u00fb du\u00efng da\u00e2y na\u00f8y \u00f4\u00fb ta\u00e0n so\u00e1 cao se\u00f5 b\u00f2 suy hao. S\u00f6\u00ef suy hao na\u00f8y phu\u00ef thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o chie\u00e0u da\u00f8i va\u00f8 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng k\u00ednh da\u00e2y da\u00e3n. V\u00f4\u00f9i \u00f1ie\u00e4n tr\u00f4\u00fb \u00f1a\u00ebc t\u00ednh la\u00f8:

R0=
r
120
\u03b5
ln
\u23a5\u23a6\u23a4
\u23a2\u23a3\u23a1
dD
2
b./ Ca\u00f9p \u00f1o\u00e0ng tru\u00efc.

Ca\u00f9p \u00f1o\u00e0ng tru\u00efc co\u00f9 kha\u00fb na\u00eang cho\u00e1ng nhie\u00e5u cao. Tuy nhie\u00e2n ca\u00f9p \u00f1o\u00e0ng tru\u00efc th\u00ec kho\u00f9 ghe\u00f9p no\u00e1i, khi n\u00f4i pha\u00f9t va\u00f8 n\u00f4i thu qua\u00f9 xa se\u00f5 ga\u00e2y ma\u00e1t ca\u00e2n ba\u00e8ngve\u00e0 masse, la\u00f8m sinh ra do\u00f8ng \u00f1ie\u00e4n tre\u00e2n l\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9i ngoa\u00f8i, se\u00f5 ta\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00e4ng \u00f1e\u00e1n la\u00f8m nhie\u00e3u. V\u00f4\u00f9i \u00f1ie\u00e4n tr\u00f4\u00fb \u00f1a\u00ebt t\u00ednh la\u00f8:

R0=
r
60
\u03b5
ln\u23a5\u23a6\u23a4
\u23a2\u23a3\u23a1
d
D
c./ Ca\u00f9p quang.

Ca\u00f9p quang co\u00f9 ba\u00eang tho\u00e2ng ra\u00e1t ro\u00e4ng ( T\u00f6\u00f8 va\u00f8i chu\u00efc MHz \u00f1e\u00e1n va\u00f8i GHz ). Ca\u00f9p quang cho phe\u00f9p truye\u00e0n tho\u00e2ng tin v\u00f4\u00f9i to\u00e1c \u00f1o\u00e4 cao, \u00f1o\u00e4 suy hao tha\u00e1p, kho\u00e2ng b\u00f2 a\u00fbnh h\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng cu\u00fba nhie\u00e5u tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng \u00f1ie\u00e4n t\u00f6\u00f8, \u00edt thay \u00f1o\u00e5i \u00f1a\u00ebc t\u00ednh theo nhie\u00e4t \u00f1o\u00e4, ca\u00f9ch \u00f1ie\u00e4n hoa\u00f8n toa\u00f8n gi\u00f6\u00f5a pha\u00e0n thu va\u00f8 pha\u00e0n pha\u00f9t.

III./ Y\u00d9 t\u00f6\u00f4\u00fbng thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 va\u00f8 nguye\u00e2n ly\u00f9 hoa\u00eft \u00f1o\u00e4ng.

D\u00f6\u00efa va\u00f8o \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng truye\u00e0n cu\u00fba ma\u00efng \u00f1ie\u00e4n thoa\u00efi, ta thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 ma\u00efch \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa qua \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng da\u00e2y \u00f1ie\u00e4n thoa\u00efi. He\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng na\u00f8y thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 \u00f1e\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n \u00f1o\u00f9ng nga\u00e9t ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 t\u00f6\u00f8 xa v\u00f4\u00f9i s\u00f6\u00ef giu\u00f9p \u00f1\u00f4\u00fb cu\u00fba vi \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n. He\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 tre\u00e2n mo\u00e2 h\u00ecnh \u00f1o\u00f9ng nga\u00e9t 4 thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 va\u00f8 pha\u00fbn ho\u00e0i ke\u00e1t qu\u00fba ba\u00e8ng gio\u00efng no\u00f9i \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc l\u00f6u tr\u00f6\u00fb trong chip ISD 2560. Ma\u00efch \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc ma\u00e9c song v\u00f4\u00f9i \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng da\u00e2y thoa\u00efi. Khi co\u00f9 cuo\u00e4c go\u00efi va\u00f8o so\u00e1 thue\u00e2 bao. Sau nh\u00f6\u00f5ng ho\u00e0i chuo\u00e2ng nha\u00e1t \u00f1\u00f2nh (So\u00e1 la\u00e0n \u00f1o\u00e5 chuo\u00e2ng do ta \u00f1a\u00ebc ). Bo\u00e4 s\u00f6\u00fb ly\u00f9 trung ta\u00e2m k\u00edch hoa\u00eft ma\u00efch ta\u00efo ta\u00fbi gia\u00fb hoa\u00eft \u00f1o\u00e4ng \u00f1e\u00e5 ke\u00e1t no\u00e1i thue\u00e2 bao. Sau khi hai thue\u00e2 bao \u00f1a\u00f5 ke\u00e1t no\u00e1i. Ma\u00efch \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n se\u00f5 pha\u00f9t ra ca\u00e2u tho\u00e2ng ba\u00f9o: \u201d Ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa xin cha\u00f8o, m\u00f4\u00f8i nha\u00e4p ma\u00e4t ma\u00f5 \u201c. Khi \u00f1o\u00f9 ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n se\u00f5 nha\u00e4p ma\u00e4t ma\u00f5. Ne\u00e1u nha\u00e4p \u00f1u\u00f9ng, ma\u00efch se\u00f5 pha\u00f9t ra ca\u00e2u tho\u00e2ng ba\u00f9o: \u201cM\u00f4\u00f8i nha\u00e4p thie\u00e1t b\u00f2\u201d Ne\u00e1u nha\u00e4p sai ma\u00efch se\u00f5 pha\u00f9t ra tho\u00e2ng ba\u00f9o: \u201c Ma\u00e4t ma\u00f5 nha\u00e4p sai, m\u00f4\u00f8i nha\u00e4p la\u00efi\u201d. Lie\u00e2n tie\u00e1p nha\u00e4p sai ba la\u00e0n th\u00ec ma\u00efch t\u00f6\u00ef \u00f1o\u00e4ng tho\u00e2ng ba\u00f9o: \u201c \u00d1a\u00f5 he\u00e1t la\u00e0n nha\u00e4p ma\u00e4t ma\u00f5, ch\u00f6\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n ke\u00e1t thu\u00f9c. Ta\u00efm bie\u00e4t\u201d va\u00f8 nga\u00e9c ta\u00fbi gia\u00fb, tr\u00f4\u00fb ve\u00e0 tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i ban \u00f1a\u00e0u ch\u00f4\u00f8 chuo\u00e2ng. Ne\u00e1u co\u00f9 ai muo\u00e1n tha\u00e2m nha\u00e4p va\u00f8o he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng ma\u00f8 kho\u00e2ng nha\u00e4p \u00f1u\u00f9ng ma\u00e4t ma\u00f5 th\u00ec he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng se\u00f5 thoa\u00f9t sau 60 gia\u00e2y.

Khi nha\u00e4p \u00f1u\u00f9ng ma\u00e4t ma\u00f5, ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n co\u00f9 the\u00e5 ta\u00e9t hoa\u00ebc m\u00f4\u00fb ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2. ( Co\u00f9 the\u00e5 \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 cu\u00f8ng mo\u00e4t lu\u00f9c). Ne\u00e1u ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n muo\u00e1n kie\u00e5m tra ta\u00e1t ca\u00fb ca\u00f9c tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i cu\u00fba thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 tr\u00f6\u00f4\u00f9c khi \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n th\u00ec nha\u00e1n so\u00e1 5 ( So\u00e1 5 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc quy \u00f1\u00f2nh la\u00f8 ma\u00f5 kie\u00e5m tra tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i ta\u00e1t ca\u00fb ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 ). Sau khi nha\u00e1n so\u00e1 5 ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n se\u00f5 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc nghe tho\u00e2ng ba\u00f9o ve\u00e0 tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i cu\u00fba thie\u00e1t b\u00f2. Ba\u00e2y gi\u00f4\u00f8 ng\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8i \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n co\u00f9 the\u00e5 ta\u00e9t hay m\u00f4\u00fb thie\u00e1t b\u00f2. Ne\u00e1u muo\u00e1n ta\u00e9t thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 th\u00ec ba\u00e1m ma\u00f5 \u201c0\u201d (Ma\u00f5 \u201c0\u201d \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc quy

Lua\u00e4n Va\u00ean :
Thie\u00e1t ke\u00e1 ma\u00efch \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n t\u00f6\u00f8 xa qua \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00f8ng da\u00e2y thoa\u00efi
GVHD: Nguye\u00e3n Huy Hu\u00f8ng
-3 -
SVTH : Pha\u00efm Ho\u00e0ng Phong
\u00f1\u00f2nh la\u00f8 ta\u00e9t thie\u00e1t b\u00f2). Ne\u00e1u muo\u00e1n ba\u00e4t thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 th\u00ec ba\u00e1m ma\u00f5 \u201c1\u201d (Ma\u00f5 \u201c1\u201d\u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc quy \u00f1\u00f2nh
la\u00f8 m\u00f4\u00fb thie\u00e1t b\u00f2). Co\u00f8n muo\u00e1n ta\u00e9t hoa\u00ebc m\u00f4\u00fb thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 na\u00f8o th\u00ec tu\u00f8y thuo\u00e4c va\u00f8o ma\u00f5 thie\u00e1t b\u00f2.
Trong he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng na\u00f8yca\u00f9c so\u00e1 \u00f1\u00f6\u00f4\u00efc quy \u00f1\u00f2nh cho ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 nh\u00f6 sau:

\u2022 So\u00e1 1 t\u00f6\u00f4ng \u00f6\u00f9ng cho thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 1 \u2022 So\u00e1 2 t\u00f6\u00f4ng \u00f6\u00f9ng cho thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 2 \u2022 So\u00e1 3 t\u00f6\u00f4ng \u00f6\u00f9ng cho thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 3 \u2022 So\u00e1 4 t\u00f6\u00f4ng \u00f6\u00f9ng cho thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 4

Khi \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n song, muo\u00e1n kie\u00e5m tra la\u00efi tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 th\u00ec ba\u00e1m la\u00efi ma\u00f5 so\u00e1 5. Lu\u00f9c na\u00f8y he\u00e4 tho\u00e1ng se\u00f5 tho\u00e2ng ba\u00f9o la\u00efi tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i ca\u00f9c thie\u00e1t b\u00f2. V\u00ed du\u00ef: Thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 1 ta\u00e9t, thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 2 ta\u00e9t, thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 3 m\u00f4\u00fb, thie\u00e1t b\u00f2 4 m\u00f4\u00fb.

Sau khi \u00f1ie\u00e0u khie\u00e5n song va\u00f8 ga\u00f9c ma\u00f9y, lu\u00f9c \u00f1o\u00f9 to\u00e5ng \u00f1a\u00f8i ca\u00e1p t\u00edn hie\u00e4u baytone,
d\u00f6\u00efa va\u00f8o t\u00edn hie\u00e4u na\u00f8y ma\u00efch t\u00f6\u00ef \u00f1o\u00e4ng nga\u00e9c ta\u00fbi gia\u00fb, tr\u00f4\u00fb ve\u00e0 tra\u00efng tha\u00f9i \u00f1a\u00e0u.

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