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Thiet Bi Ngoai Vi Va Ki Thuat Ghep Noi

Thiet Bi Ngoai Vi Va Ki Thuat Ghep Noi

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Page 1 of 56 
Môn h
cThi
ế
t b
ngo
i vi và k
thu
t ghép n
i(Peripherals & Interfacing Technique)
Giáo viên: Bùi Qu
c Anh,B
môn K
thu
t Máy tính
 
 
Introduction: The purpose of this course is to provide student with technical knowledge of each majorsubsystem of Interface, including processors, memories, IO bus,... especially Nonstandard zed InputOutput via ports and applies to industry architectures across a wide range of hardware vendors
 
This document could contain technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Author believes thestatements contained herein are accurate as of the date of editing of this doc. However, the Authormakes no warranty of any kind with respect to the accuracy of the contents hereof.Tài li
u tham kh
o:Publications:
-
 
Microprocessor Interfacing techniques, R. Zaks & A. Lease, Sybex
-
 
Micro Processor and Interfacing, D. Hall, McGraw Hill;
-
 
IBM PC AT Technical Reference (Buses, Ports), IBM;
-
 
Introduction to the PC Architecture Course, IBM PC Institute, 1997
-
 
Interfacing to IBM PC – L. C. Eggebrecht, IBM Corp.
-
 
Parallel Port Complete, J.Axelson, LakeViewResearch.
-
 
Mastering Serial Communication, P.W. Gofton, Sybex.
-
 
PC Intern (System Programming), M. Tischer, Abacus.
-
 
Programming & Interfacing the 8051 MC, S. Yeralan, Addison-Wesley
-
 
...Software:
-
 
TechHelp Ver. 4.0 / 6.0
-
 
MSDN, Online Help.
-
 
 Design tools:
OrCAD, Protel, Cadence...
-
 
Programming Languages (C, Pascal, MASM, C++, VB, Delphi, VC++...)
-
 
. . . .Websites, .pdf files:
-
 
IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Motorola ...
-
 
ATMEL: atmel.com/product/microcontrollers 89Cxx (51/52/2051/8252, AVR - RISC, MSC51)...
-
 
National Semiconductor: ns.com/products: ADC 0809, DAC0800/1210, S&H LM198)...
-
 
INTERSIL: intersil.com/products/ICL7109, 7135...
-
 
Analog Devices Inc.: adi.com/products/adc, S&H...: AD574, AD1674
-
 
USB: usb.org (pdf files for version 1.x & 2.x)
-
 
Cypress – EZ USB, Developing Kit...
-
 
...
Interfacing?
Page 2 of 56 
1. Hardware2. Software:
Device Drivers: SLLs, DLLs, DRVs, VxDs, DCUs,...
CPU, Mem,Bus,Controllers,... Wide world
Computerized Dev:KB, Printer,Scanner, MouseSpecific Devices:HDD, CRT, ...Industry Objects:Scale, Furnace,GenSet, Tanks,...
 AdaptorPortsControllersHDC, CRTC ADC, DACCentral Sys.
 
Page 3 of 56 
Ch
ươ 
ng.1 Ki
ế
n trúc h
VXL – MT
 
§
 
Ki
ế
n trúc thi
ế
t b
h
kinh
đ
i
n,
§
 
Ki
ế
n trúc h
máy tính ‘Hi Performance’
§
 
Ho
t
độ
ng c
a h
th
ng.1.1. Ki
ế
n trúc H
VXL, Máy tính kinh
đ
i
n – Embedded systems
 
1.1.1. S
ơ 
 
đồ
:3 ph
n:- CS,- Ngo
i vi &- Interface1.1.1. a. Central Sub System – CS:+ CPU: Central Processing Unit:
 
 
Khái ni
m:
Là b
 
đ
i
u khi
n trung tâm, th
c hi
n công vi
c
đượ 
c giao
đặ
t trong b
nh
ớ 
ch
ươ 
ng trìnhb
ng cách th
c hi
n các phép x
lý lên các bi
ế
n nh
phân và
đ
i
u khi
n thi
ế
t b
ngo
i vi.
 
Công vi
c bao g
m:
 
Tìm l
nh, gi
i mã l
nh, [tìm toán h
ng, x
lý và c
t k
ế
t qu
],
 
In/Out v
ớ 
i các port ki
u Interrupt và DMA
để
 
đ
i
u khi
n thi
ế
t b
ngo
i vi.
Đặ
c tr
ư 
ng – Specifications:
 
 
Kích th
ướ 
c toán h
ng (bit): 4, 8, 12, 16, 32, 64...
 
T
c
độ
x
lý: Mips, clock multiplier,
 
Ki
ế
n trúc: RISC vs CISC, DSP, Micro Controller...
 
Pinning/Signalling (Data/Address - Mux, Control bus, IRQ, HRQ, RD/WR...),
 
Register set,
 
Instruction set – Addressing Modes,
 
Power: Slow/ sleep/ power down modes
 
...
Memories (Semiconductor): K/n & ROM:
 
Khái ni
m:
 
 
L
ư
u thông tin (ch/tr và s
li
u) d
ng nh
phân,
 
Dung l
ượ 
ng l
ớ 
n (upto 100s Mega bit), t
c
độ
truy nh
p nhanh (downto ns access time).
Physically: tính ch
ấ 
t v
t lý nh
ư 
th
ế 
nào?
 
ROMs: g
m Mask ROM, PROM, EPROM, EAROM, OTROM, NonVolatile mem, ...
 
Là b
nh
ớ 
ch
 
đọ
c, v
n l
ư
u thông tin khi m
t
đ
i
n,
 
Package : byte
 
Access time:100..120ns
 
Ghi/n
p n
i dung: T/b
chuyên dùng (ROM Burner/Programmator)
Memories (Semiconductor): SRAM
RAMs:
 
L
ư
u thông tin t
m th
ờ 
i, không l
ư
u
đượ 
c khi m
t
đ
i
n,
đọ
c và ghi
đượ 
c, [Read/Write Mem].
Page 4 of 56 
 
Static RAM:
 
nhanh (80..3 ns),
 
byte/nibble package,
 
m
t
độ
byte/chip nh
(upto 64/256 KB/ chip),
 
đắ
t, tiêu th
công su
t nhi
u,
 
CMOS RAM: ch
m và tiêu th
c
c ít, less
µ
W. Vd
: MC 146818 RealTimeClock-CMOS RAM
 
Dùng trong các h
nh
, cache memory.
Memories (Semiconductor): DRAM
 Dynamic RAM: DRAM:
§
 
T
c
độ
 /Access time (50-70ns), [10..20ns] Pre-fetched
§
 
M
t
độ
bit/chip >> (1 Gbit/chip – 1996, Korea),
§
 
bit package => DRAM bank,
§
 
Tiêu th
công su
t nh
.
§
 
Thông tin ch
l
ư
u
đượ 
c 10ms => refreshing DRAM v
ớ 
i chu k
@ 7,5ms => ph
c t
p.
§
 
Dùng trong các h
có dung l
ượ 
ng nh
ớ 
l
ớ 
n: máy tính, máy ch
...
Memories (Semiconductor): FLASH & Others
 Flash memory:EAROM typed,
đưọ
c
đợ 
c, xoá t
ng bank, ghi l
i
đượ 
c t
ng byte. Thông tin l
ư
u
đượ 
c 20 n
ă
m, dùngnhi
u hi
n nay và t
ươ 
ng lai: BIOS, diskchip...Serial EAROM/FLASH: dùng
để
l
ư
u configuration, dùng bus I2C (Philips). Ví d
 
ng d
ng : th
vi m
ch,TV, ...Dual [Quad] Ported RAM: Switching Sys., PGARAM-DAC: VGA, VoiceChipPCMCIA....
Memories (Semiconductor):
 Logically:
 B
nh
ớ 
ch
ứ 
a thông tin gì?
 
§
 
Program memory:
§
 
ch
a ch/tr
đ
ang
đượ 
c th
c hi
n
§
 
Data memory:
§
 
các bi
ế
n ng
u nhiên,
§
 
bi
ế
n có c
u trúc,
§
 
s
li
u có ki
u truy nh
p
đặ
c bi
t FIFO, LIFO (Stack memory).
+ Controllers: [Optional], vi m
ch, nâng hi
u n
ă
ng (performance) h
th
ng, bao g
m:
 
 B
 
đ 
i
ề 
u khi
ể 
n
ư 
u tiên ng
ắ 
t PIC –
Priority Interrupt Controller, Intel 8259A
§
 
 B
 
đ 
i
ề 
u khi
ể 
n truy nh
 p tr 
ự 
c ti
ế 
 p b
nh
ớ 
DMAC –
Direct memory Access Controller, Intel 8237A.
§
 
Timer: m
ch t 
o các kho
ng th
ờ 
i gian, PIT-
Programmable Interval Timer, Intel 8254.
§
 
 M 
ch qu
n tr 
nh
ớ 
: MMU-
Memory Management Unit, sau này, th
ườ 
ng
đợ 
c built on chip v
ớ 
i CPU.
§
 
 Bus controller/Arbitor 
§
 
...
 
Bus System: K/n & Addr bus
 
PCB (Printed Circuit Board)/ Cable (Twisted pairs, flat..), slot, connector...
 
N
i h
ơ 
n 1 slave device, time sharing
 
Thông tin: Address, data, control, status, Power Supply
 
Chi
u (dir), 3 state (Hi Z), Loading
 ADDRESS BUS:
 
T
các BusMaster (CPU, DMAC, PCI host Controller)
đế
n SlaveDevices (Mem, Ports)
để
ch
n/ ch
t
ng IO/ Mem location trong t
ng chu k
bus
 
n Addr bit
è
2n Mem Locations & 2m IO Locations, m<n
Bus System: Data bus
§
 
 Data bus:
 
§
 
S
bit (th
ườ 
ng) phù h
ợ 
p v
ớ 
i kích th
ướ 
c ALU (8/16/32/64 bit)
 
Page 5 of 56 
§
 
Chuy
n Op-code (mã l
nh) trong chu k
máy M1, - CPU <= Program Memory, trong các buscycle M1
§
 
V
n chuy
n data:- CPU <=> Data memory,- CPU <=> IO Ports và- Data Memory <=> IO Ports, DMA.
Bus System: Control/Status bus:
§
 
g
m các tín hi
u:
§
 
Control/ Response: CPU to Others (MEMR, MEMW, IOR, IOW, INTA, HLDA, BHE...),from CPU
§
 
Status/Request to CPU: IRQ, HRQ, Ready, ... to CPU
Bus System: Power Supply:
 
§
 
+5V 
±
5%, 10
đế 
n 20 Amp, c
ấ 
 p cho các Vi m
ch s
ố 
 , RedWire. (3.3V and less)
§
 
Ground, Gnd, 0V, signal reference ground, chassis, BlackWire.
§
 
+12V 
±
10%, 1Amp, c
ấ 
 p cho các m
ch analog, motors, RS232, YellowWire.
§
 
-12V 
±
10%, 1Amp, (nh trên), BlueWire.
§
 
- 5 V 
±
5%, 0.5 Amp, analog circuitries, WhiteWire.
§
 
Power good: OrangeWire.
 Ngu
 n thông minh: AXT 
1.1.1.b. Thi
ế
t b
Ngo
i vi: Data Input Devices:
-
 
Key board/ Key pad, Touch SCR: s
phím, công ngh
phím, ki
u dò phím, output code, ghép n
i CS-
 
Mouse, track ball-
 
Scanner, Camera, Camcoder: Colors, resolution, f, công ngh
CCD - Charge Couple Device, graphicsfile bmp-
 
Digitizer, nh
p graphics file vector - b
n
đồ
 -
 
Light Pen, Joy stick (Games)-
 
Demodulator (MODEM): Ki
u
đ
i
u ch
ế
, t
c
độ
bps, ki
u nén-
 
Microphone,-
 
Barcode reader: máy
đọ
c mã v
ch Laser/ LED,-
 
Sensor, Transducers, Transmitters: V
t li
u, thi
ế
t b
,
độ
nh
y,
độ
tuy
ế
n tính, d
i
đ
o...
1.1.1.b. T/b
Ngo
i vi: Data Output Devices:
-
 
Displays: Ki
u hi
n th
: Point/ 7Seg/ Text/ Graphics; Mono Chrome/Color (color numbers); Size,Resolution, Rate of Refreshing...
-
 
Công ngh
:
-
 
LED (Light Emitting Diodes): point, 7(16) Segment, Matrix character box (Bill Board), OutdoorLED Screen...
-
 
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display): single color, color, active, TFT (thin film transistor)...
-
 
Organic LED (Preliminary),
-
 
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube).
-
 
Printers:
-
 
Spec:
Text-Graphics, Mono-Color, Resolution, ppm – page per minute, Size, Line-PostScript,media... :
-
 
Pin Printer,
-
 
Jet Printer,
-
 
Laser Printer,
-
 
Thermal Transfer Printer, barcode Printer.
-
 
High Speed Text Printer,
-
 
...
1.1.1.b. T/b
Ngo
i vi: Data Output Devices: Others
-
 
Plotter, jet
-
 
Modulator (MODEM)
-
 
Speaker
-
 
Actuator: Motor (dc/ac, Step), Relay, Valve,
Page 6 of 56 
1.1.1.b. T/b
Ngo
i vi: Data Massive Storages:
-
 
Magnetic devices: FDD, HDD, RAID, Tape backup drive...
-
 
Optical devices: CD [Writer] Drives, Magnetic Optic disk drive...
-
 
Semiconductor devices: FlashChip, PCMCIA Card...
1.1.1.c. Interface:
 Lý do: khác nhau:
-
 
Tín hi
u (dòng, áp),
-
 
T
c
độ
làm vi
c/t
c
độ
trao
đổ
i s
li
u,
-
 
Không
đồ
ng b
...Nên c
n có m
ch
đ
i
n t
 
để
thích
ng hoá (Adapting) và ch/tr
đ
i
u khi
n, g
m:
-
 
Thi
ế
t b
(Hardware Circuitries), so called Adaptors:
-
 
Input/Output Ports: (Parallel/Serial): ghep n
i v
ớ 
i Computerized devices (KB, Printer, Mouse,Scanner, Modem...)
-
 
Controllers:
để
ghép n
i v
ớ 
i nh
ng thi
ế
t b
chuyên dùng FDC, HDC (IDE, EIDE), CRTC (EGA,VGA, SVGA...)
-
 
Converter:
để
chuy
n
đổ
i tín hi
u s
thành t
ươ 
ng t
và ng
ượ 
c l
i: ADC, DAC
1.1.1.c. Interface:Ch/tr
đ
i
u khi
n – Device Driver:
 - K/n: Hardware or Software?-
để
liên k
ế
t System Programs and/or Application Programs v
ớ 
i IO hardware (SPIs và APIs).Các hàm c
a thi
ế
t b
, BIOS, OS ho
c theo
ng d
ng: SLLs, DLLs, DRVs, ...
1.1.2. Ki
ế
n trúc máy tính hi
u n
ă
ng cao - hi performance architecture
 
1.1.2. Hi-Per. Architecture:1.1.2.a. Local Buses:
Ví d
VESA VL-Bus 2.0 [late 1993], Memory [1985].Also called system/host/processor bus.Ch
liên k
ế
t CPU, MMU (Cache & DRAM) và PCI Host [Bridge],ít, g
n, unbuffered (direct connected to Processor);33, 66, 100, 133, 200, 400, 800 MHz... clock.32 bit A/D (16 bit support also), burst mode, max 132 MBps,

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