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Impact of Jet on Vanes

# Impact of Jet on Vanes

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09/20/2013

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EXPERIMENT NO 1 Anil ChejaraIMPACT OF JET ON VANE Roll No. 9003022Group No. 4
Background:
The momentum equation based on Newton’s 2
nd
law of motion states that the algebraic sumof external forces applied to control volume of fluid in any direction equal to the rate of change of momentum in that direction.The external forces include the component of the weight of the fluid and of the forces exertedexternally upon the boundary surface of control volume.
If a vertical water jet moving with velocity ‘V’ made to strike a target (Vane) which is free,
to move in vertical direction, force will be exerted on the target by the impact of jet.Applying momentum equation in z- direction, force exerted by the jet on the vane, F
Z
is givenbyF
Z

= ρQ (Vz
out
- V
Z in
)For flat plate, V
z out
= 0F
z

= ρQ(0
-v)F
Z=
ρQv
For hemispherical curved plate, v
z out
= -v, v
z in
= vF
z

= ρQ[v+(
-v)]F
Z
= 2

ρQv
Where Q= Discharge from the nozzle (Calculated by volumetric method)V= Velocity of jet = (Q/A)
Objectives:
1.

To determine the force produced by a water jet when it strikes a flat vane anda hemispherical cup.2.

To compare the results measured with the theoretical values calculated fromthe momentum flux in the jet.
Experimental Setup:
In experimental arrangement the bench supply is led to a vertical pipe terminating in atapered nozzle. This produces a jet of water which impinges on a vane in a form of a flat or ahemispherical cup. The nozzle and the vane are contained within a transparent cylinder at the

base of the cylinder where there is an outlet by which the flow may be directed to theweighing tank.The vane is supported by a rod which carries a weight, and which is restrained by a spring.The rod may be set to a balance position by placing the weight at its zero position. Any forcegenerated by the impact of the jet on the vane may now be measured by moving the rodweight along the scale until the rod head reaches to equilibrium position.
Procedure:
1.

Clean and fill the sump tank with water.2.

First of all note down the relevant dimensions as area of collecting tank and diameterof nozzle.3.

When jet is not running, note down the position of upper disc or plate.4.

Admit water supply to the nozzle.5.

As the jet strikes the disc, the disc moves upward, now for given water supply tonozzle and weight note the equilibrium position of disc on the scale.6.

At this position find out the discharge and note down the weights placed above thedisc.7.

The procedure is repeated for different values of flow rate by reducing the watersupply in steps.
Flow pattern of impactObservations and Calculation:
a.

Data usedDensity of water
ρ = 1000 kg/ m
3
Area of cross section of nozzle A=d
2
/ 4 = 7.85 X 10
-5
m
2
Area of measuring tank =0.1 m
2

Diameter of nozzle d = 0.010 mweight of Aluminium disc + rod = 14.5 gm.Weight of Flat plate disc = 89.5 gm.Weight of hemispherical vane = 97.5 gm.Sample weights used = 98.5, 192, 481, 286 gm.b.

Sample calculation for Flat plate vane with 98.5 gm. Weight;Given area of measuring tank = 0.25 x .40 m
2
= 0.1 m
2
time = 10 secheight rise in measuring tank = 6.5 cm = 0.065 mVolume flow rate = Volume / timeVolume of fluid = Area x height= 0.0065 m
3
Volume flow rate = 0.0065 m
3
/ 10 sec= 0.00065 m
3
/ secc.

Constant weights: total = 104 gm. For Flat plate and 112 gm. For hemispherical vaneTheoretical force, using the formula
Flat Plate:
F
t
=
ρ
a v
2
=1000 X 7.85 X 10
-5
X8.28 X 8.28 / 9.8 N= 0.55 NApplying
Newton’s second law in the direction of incident jet

Weight Flat Plate vane Hemispherical vane
(gm.)Estimatedforce (forflat plate)(N)Estimatedforce (forhemispherical)(N)Q(Volumeflow rate)(m
3
/s)Jetvelocity(m/s)F
t
(N)Q (Volumeflow rate)(m
3
/s)Jetvelocity(m/s)F
t
(N)0 1.02 1.10 0.0006 7.64 4.59 0.0005 6.37 6.3798.5 1.98 2.06 0.00065 8.28 5.38 0.00056 7.13 7.99192 2.90 2.98 0.00065 8.28 5.38 0.00062 7.9 9.79286 3.82 3.90 0.00067 8.54 5.72 0.00065 8.28 10.76481 5.73 5.81 0.00072 9.17 6.60 0.00068 8.66 11.79