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Table Of Contents

SECTION 1 Introduction
1 Background
2 The Use of Electric Drives in Marine Applications
3 Main Propulsion Drives
FIGURE 6 Electrically-driven Podded Propulsor
4 The Future?
SECTION 2 The Production of Harmonics
1 Production of Harmonics
FIGURE 1 Voltage and Current Waveforms for Linear Load
FIGURE 2a Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier FIGURE 2b
FIGURE 3a Simple Single Line Diagram
FIGURE 3b Load Current and Volt Drop Waveforms
FIGURE 4 How Voltage Distortion is Produced (Simplified)
FIGURE 5 Typical Computer Nonlinear Load
FIGURE 6 Single-phase Switched Mode Power Supply
FIGURE 8 Construction of Complex Wave
2 Characteristic Harmonic Currents
FIGURE 12 Typical 6-Pulse PWM AC Drive
3 Effect of Harmonic Currents on Impedance(s)
FIGURE 15 Distorted Currents Induce Voltage Distortion
4 Calculation of Voltage Distortion
5 Harmonic Sequence Components
6 Line Notching
FIGURE 18 Exaggerated Example of “Line Notching”
FIGURE 20 SCR Line Notching and Associated “Ringing”
7 Interharmonics
8 Subharmonics
SECTION 3 Effects of Harmonics
1 Generators
1.1 Thermal Losses
1.2 Effect of Sequence Components
1.3 Voltage Distortion
FIGURE 1 Equivalent Circuit for a Generator
1.4 Line Notching and Generators
1.5 Shaft Generators
2 Transformers
2.1 Thermal Losses
2.3 Transformer Derating or K-factor Transformer
3 Induction Motors
3.1 Thermal Losses
3.2 Effect of Harmonic Sequence Components
3.3 Explosion-proof Motors and Voltage Distortion
4 Variable Speed Drives
FIGURE 6 PWM Drive “Flat Topping” due to Weak Source
5 Lighting
5.1 Flicker
5.2 Effects of Line Notching on Lighting
5.3 Potential for Resonance
6 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
7 Computers and Computer Based Equipment
FIGURE 7 Voltage “Flat Topping” due to Pulse Currents
FIGURE 8 Effect of DC Bus Voltage with Flat Topping
FIGURE 9 Flat Topping Reducing Supply Ride-through
8 Cables
8.1 Thermal Losses
8.2 Skin and Proximity Effects
8.3 Neutral Conductors in Four-wire Systems
8.4 Additional Effects Associated with Harmonics
9 Measuring Equipment
FIGURE 13 Peak and rms Values of Sinusoidal Waveform
10 Telephones
11 Circuit Breakers
12 Fuses
13 Relays
14 Radio, Television, Audio and Video Equipment
15 Capacitors
SECTION 4 Sources of Harmonics
1.1 Three-wire Distribution Systems
1.2 Four-wire Distribution Systems
2 Single-phase Nonlinear Loads
2.1 Computer-based Equipment
2.2 Fluorescent Lighting
2.3 Televisions
FIGURE 15 Television – Typical Current Waveform
FIGURE 16 Television – Typical Harmonic Current Spectrum
2.4 Single-phase AC PWM Drives
FIGURE 18 Single-phase AC PWM Drive Current Spectrum
3 Three-phase Nonlinear Loads
3.1 DC SCR drives
3.2 AC PWM drives
FIGURE 25 Typical AC PWM Drive Block Diagram
FIGURE 26 Pulsed Nature of AC PWM Drive Input Current
FIGURE 28 Basic Principle of Pulse Width Modulation
3.3 AC Cycloconverter Drives
FIGURE 32 Single-phase-to-Single-phase Cycloconverter
FIGURE 34 Three-phase 6-Pulse Cycloconverter
FIGURE 36 Waveforms for Blocking Mode Cycloconverters
3.4 AC Load Commutated Inverter (LCI)
4 Additional Three-phase Sources of Harmonics
4.1 Rotating Machines
4.2 Transformers
4.3 UPS Systems
4.4 Shaft Generators
FIGURE 51 Traditional Shaft Generator System
FIGURE 52 Inverter Output Voltage Waveform
SECTION 5 Harmonics and System Power Factor
1 Power Factor in Systems with Linear Loads Only
2 Power Factor in Power System with Harmonics
SECTION 6 The Effect of Loading on Harmonic Current Distortion
1 Total Harmonic Voltage Distortion (Vthd)
2.1 AC PWM Drives
2.2 DC SCR Drives
2.3 Load Commutated Inverters
2.4 Cycloconverters
1 “Stiff” and “Soft” Sources
FIGURE 5 Paralleling of Generators
FIGURE 6 Example of Paralleled Generators
1 Balanced Systems
FIGURE 1 Balanced System
2 Unbalanced Systems
FIGURE 2 Unbalanced System
2.1 Definition of Voltage Unbalance
FIGURE 4 Reduction of Insulation Life with Temperature
2.3 Effect of Unbalanced Loading on Harmonics
FIGURE 10 Unbalance and the Effect on 12-Pulse Drives
FIGURE 11 Unbalance and the Effect on 18-Pulse Drives
3 Prevention of Resonance
3.1 The Effect of Adding a Detuning Reactor
SECTION 10 Mitigation of Harmonics
1 Effect of Phase Diversity on Harmonic Currents
2 Effect of Linear Load on Harmonic Currents
3.1 Phase Shifting
FIGURE 2 Phase Shifting of Three-wire Nonlinear Loads
3.2 Active Filtering
FIGURE 3 Four-wire System with Nonlinear Loads
FIGURE 4 Operation of a Zero Sequence Transformer
4.2 Active Filters for Four-wire Systems
5.1 Reactors for AC PWM Drives
FIGURE 10 DC Bus Reactance Only in AC PWM Drive
7.2 Duplex Reactors
FIGURE 21 Duplex Reactor Schematic
FIGURE 22a System Voltage Waveform
FIGURE 22b Duplex Reactor Correction Voltage
FIGURE 22c “Corrected” System Voltage
8 Passive L-C Filters
Harmonic Series Filter
FIGURE 29 Common Configuration of Passive Filters
9 Transformer Phase Shifting (Multi-pulsing)
FIGURE 37 Typical 18-Pulse Drive System
FIGURE 38 Effect of 2% Unbalance on 18-Pulse Drive
11 Electronic Filters
11.1 Active Filters
FIGURE 42 Simplified Power Circuit of Active Filter
FIGURE 45 Source Current Waveform (LS) as per Figure 41
11.2 Hybrid Active-Passive Filters
FIGURE 47 Theoretical Shunt Passive-Active Hybrid Filter
12 “Active Front Ends” for AC PWM Drives
SECTION 11 Harmonic Limit Recommendations
1 General Systems
2 Dedicated Systems
SECTION 12 Calculation of Harmonic Voltage Distortion
1 Manual Calculation of Voltage Distortion
TABLE 1 Summary of Harmonics to 25th
TABLE 2 Summary of Harmonics to 25th
2 Software Estimation of Harmonic Distortion
SECTION 13 Provision of Information on Harmonics
1 Information to be requested from Vendors
2 Information to be included with a Harmonic Analysis
SECTION 14 Harmonic Surveys and Measurement Equipment
1 Safety Precautions during Harmonic Surveys
2 Planning the Harmonic Survey or Measurements
4 Examples of Harmonic Analyzers
4.1 The Fluke 43B
FIGURE 1 Fluke 43B Harmonic/Power Quality Analyzer
4.2 AEMC 3945
FIGURE 9 Three-phase Voltage Waveforms
FIGURE 10 Transient Current Waveforms
FIGURE 11 Three-phase Voltage Harmonics
FIGURE 12 Harmonic Direction
FIGURE 13 Harmonic Sequences
FIGURE 14 Phasor Diagram
FIGURE 15 AEMC 3945 Configuration via Computer
FIGURE 16 Real Time Current Waveforms via Computer
FIGURE 18 Unbalance in Real Time via Computer
4.3 Hioki 3196
FIGURE 24 Summary of Data Sampled from Hioki 3196
5 Measurements on Voltages above 690/750 V AC
APPENDIX 1 Recommended Reading
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ABS Guidance Notes on Control of Harmonics in Electrical Power Systems

ABS Guidance Notes on Control of Harmonics in Electrical Power Systems

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Published by Martin Butcher

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Published by: Martin Butcher on Oct 28, 2011
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