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Table Of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 U.S. PIPELINE NETWORK
1.2 FLUIDS HANDLED
TABLE 1.2-1 Characteristics of Liquid Hydrocarbons
1.3 TYPES OF LINE PIPE
1.4 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
1.4.1 Tankage
1.4.2 Piping Types
1.4.3 Pumping Stations
1.4.4 Metering Stations
1.4.5 Valve Manifolds
1.4.6 Piping Manifolds
1.4.7 Pigging Stations
1.4.8 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems
1.4.9 Telecommunication Towers
1.4.10 Mass Flow Meters
1.4.11 Valves
1.4.12 Corrosion Control Systems
2 PIPELINE DESIGN
2.1 FACTORS INFLUENCING PIPELINE DESIGN
2.1.1 General Pipeline Design Considerations
2.1.2 Safety
2.1.3 Industry Codes and Standards
2.1.6 Pressure
2.1.7 Product Qualities
2.1.8 Other Design Considerations
TABLE 2.1-2 Impact Factors for Highways and Railroads Versus Depth of Cover
2.1.10 Overpressure Protection
2.1.11 Valve Spacing and Rapid Shutdown
2.1.12 Pumps and Pumping Stations
2.1.13 Pigging Devices and Pig Launching/Receiving Facilities
2.1.14 Distribution Terminals
2.1.15 Measurement and Flow Control
2.1.16 Risk of Natural Hazards and Human Threats
2.2 COLOCATION ISSUES IN CORRIDORS
2.2.1 Fire Hazards
2.2.2 Coincident Construction
2.2.3 Electrical Interference
3 PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION
3.1 SCHEDULING
3.2 PRECONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
3.2.1 Survey and Mapping
3.2.2 Staging Areas
3.2.3 Soil and Geology Studies
3.3 CONSTRUCTION
3.3.2 Clearing and Grading
3.3.3 Stringing Pipe Joints along the ROW
3.3.5 Pipe Bedding Material
3.3.6 Welding
3.3.7 Pipe Bending
3.3.8 Pipe Coating
3.3.9 Lowering the Pipeline into the Ditch
3.3.10 Backfilling the Ditch
3.3.11 Hydrostatic Testing
3.3.12 Final Grading and Reclamation
3.3.13 Special Conditions
4 PIPELINE OPERATIONS
4.1 INSPECTIONS AND MARKERS
4.1.1 Inspections during Excavation
4.1.2 ROW Inspections
4.1.3 Pipeline Markers and Aboveground Facilities
4.1.4 Change in Operating Rate
4.2 PIPELINE REPAIRS
4.2.1 Moving and Lowering Hazardous Liquid Pipelines
4.2.2 Remedial Action for Corrosion Deficiencies
4.3 PIGGING ACTIVITIES
4.4 CHEMICAL ADDITIVES
4.5 PIPELINE SECURITY
4.6 WASTE MANAGEMENT
4.7 CATHODIC CORROSION PROTECTION
4.8 LEAK DETECTION
4.9 INTEGRITY ASSESMENTS
4.9.2 Crack-Detection Tools
4.9.3 Geometry Tools
4.9.4 Mapping Tools
4.10 PIPELINE REPAIR TECHNIQUES
5 DECOMMISSION AND DEMOLITION
6 EMERGENCIES AND OFF-NORMAL EVENTS
7 REFERENCES
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APT_60928_EVS_TM_08_1

APT_60928_EVS_TM_08_1

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Published by: Rafea Salem on Oct 29, 2011
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