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Integration of aquaculture with Makhana

Integration of aquaculture with Makhana

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Published by api-3803371
Makhan cultivation is a traditional practice in the rural belt of eastern India especialy in Northern Bihar. There is a good potentiality to uplift the rural economy by integrating aquaculture with Makhana and by crop diversification.
Makhan cultivation is a traditional practice in the rural belt of eastern India especialy in Northern Bihar. There is a good potentiality to uplift the rural economy by integrating aquaculture with Makhana and by crop diversification.

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Published by: api-3803371 on Oct 17, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Integration of Carp culture with Makhana
Integration of Carp culture with Makhana
Integration of Carp culture with Makhana
Integration of Carp culture with Makhana
(
((
(Euryale ferox
Euryale ferox
Euryale ferox
Euryale feroxSalisb.)
Salisb.)
Salisb.)
Salisb.)
\u2013
\u2013\u2013
\u2013A Route to Crop Diversification
A Route to Crop Diversification
A Route to Crop Diversification
A Route to Crop Diversification
Dr. Anand Mohan Verma
Reg. No. \u2013 PGDIF 114
Guide
Dr. Subhendu Datta
Sr. Scientist
POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INLAND FISHERIES

Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Kolkata centre
32-GN Block, Sector V, Kolkata \u2013 91, India

2
Integration of Carp culture with Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.)
\u2013 A Route to Crop Diversification
Introduction:

The word makhana is composed of two Sanskrit words \u2013 Makh, means Yajna and Anna, means grain. Due to its non-mentioning in Vedas, it is considered as non-indigenous in origin.

It is an aquatic dry fruit with high nutritional value and medicinal properties also. The edible pops are the finished products obtained after the processing of the seeds of this aquatic phytocrop. Makhana is major cash crop of North Bihar.

Makhana is called fox nut or Gorgon nut in English because its seeds are
hard and nut like.
Its scientific name is Euryale ferox salisb. Earlier scientific name of
Makhana was Anislia spinosa. It belongs to the family Nymphaeceae.
Makhana is very delicious fruit and is called different names in different
states.
Sanskrit
-
Makhann
Maithili
-
Makhan
Hindi
-
Makhana
Bengali
-
Mokhana
Gujrati
-
Makhanna
Marathi
-
Makhano
Asami
-

Nikori
Punjabi &
Kashmiri

-
Jewar
Orria
-
Kanti Padam
Telgu
-
Padmanu
In my opinion Makhana can be called as \u2018Black gems of Wetlands\u2019.

As far the distribution of Makhana plants is concerned it is found in natural wild forms in various parts of north East India (Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura) and in scattered pockets of U.P. and Orissa. However, North Bihar

3

is the principal area where it is cultivated as cash crop. In North Bihar about 9 districts (Kishanganj, Araria, Purnia, Katihar, Supaul, Madhepura, Saharsa, Darbhanga and Madhubani.) witness the cultivation of Makhana. It is important aquatic bio-resource of North Bihar.

Life cycle and Cultivation

Makhana is a perennial rooted floating aquatic herb. In north Bihar it is cultivated as annual aquatic phytocrop. Its plant is large prickly with orbicular floating gigantic leaves. The size of leaves even more than 1 m. Plant is rooted with rhizomatous stem and cluster of roots. Leaves are green above and purple beneath. Flowers are violet in colour. Two types if flowers appear cleistogamous and chasmogamous. Fruits are spongy berry like which undergo dehiscence to release the arillated seeds. Mucilaginous arils keep the seeds floating for few days. Seeds finally settle down to the bottom. Each Makhana plant produces 15-20 fruits and each fruit contains 30-40 seeds.

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