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00016745 Control for Stability in Interconnected Power System

00016745 Control for Stability in Interconnected Power System

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C o n tro l fo rS ta b ility
in In te rc o n n e c te dP o w e r S y s te m s
A BSTRA CT: The increase in size and com -
p le x ity
o f
in te rc o n n e c te d
pow er
system s,
c o u p le d w ith in d u s tly \u2019s c o m m itm e n t to m a x -
im u m
security at m inim um

cost, has led to th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f m a n y s p e c ia l c o n tro l d e - vices. These control devices ensure that the s y s te m is a b le to o p e ra te , w ith o u t in s ta b ility , under a

w id e
ra n g e
of system

c o n d itio n s . This paper describes the developm ent of a n u m b e r o f s ta b iliz in g c o n tro ls . T h e ro b u s t- ness of the overall pow er system

is e m p h a - s iz e d a lo n g w ith m o d ific a tio n s to th e b a s ic c o n tro ls

n e c e s s a ry
t o
a c h ie v e
th is

ro b u st- n e s s . A n a ly tic a l to o ls u s e d in th e d e s ig n o f p ra c tic a l

pow er
s y s te m
c o n tro ls
a re
d e -
s c rib e d .
T he
im p o rta n c e
o f
v a lid a tio n
o f

m o d e lin g a n d s im u la tio n m e th o d s b y p la n n e d s y s te m te s ts a n d b y th e a n a ly s is o f n a tu ra lly o c c u rrin g

fa u lts
i s
s tr e s s e d .
L ik e ly
fu tu re
s y s te m
d e v e lo p m e n ts a r e re v ie w e d , in c lu d -
in g th e im p lic a tio n
o n th e ty p e o f c o n tro ls
that m ay be necessary.
I n tr o d u c tio n
I n
recent years, power

system s, world- w id e , h a v e g ro w n m a rk e d ly in s iz e a n d c o m - p le x ity . I n o rd e r to m a x im iz e e ffic ie n c yo f g e n e ra tio n a n d d is trib u tio n o f e le c tric p o w e r, th e in te rc o n n e c tio n s b e tw e e n in d iv id u a l u til- itie s h a v e in c re a s e d a n d th e g e n e ra to rs h a v e been required to operate at m axim um

lim its

fo re x te n s iv e p e rio d s o f tim e . In a d d itio n , th e m o s t e c o n o m ic s ite s f o r g e n e ra tio n p la n ts are often rem ote from

lo a d c e n te rs a n d th e
power must be
tran sm itted
o v e r lo n g
d is -
ta n c e s . T h e m a jo rity o f p o w e r s y s te m
in te r-

connections are m ade through A C transm is- s io n lin e s a n d th e in te rc o n n e c te d g e n e ra to rs run synchronously. In a large interconnected system , such as that in N orth A m erica, there m ay be thousands of synchronous generators in service to supply the load. E ach generator norm ally has separate controls that are used to re g u la te th e re a l a n d re a c tiv e p o w e r s u p - p lie d b y th e g e n e ra to r to th e s y s te m .

T ransients in pow er system s are analyzed u s in g m a n y le v e ls o f m o d e lin g d e ta il. A t o n e e x tre m e is th e s tu d y o f e le c tro m a g n e tic tra n -

D r. G raham
J . R o g e rs is w ith O n ta rio H y d ro ,7 0 0
U n iv e rsity A v e n u e , T o ro n to , O n ta rio M 5G
1 x 6 ,
C anada.
G ra h a m
J . R o g e rs
s ie n ts
in itia te d
b y
s te e p
w avefront
p u ls e s
(s u c h a s lig h tn in g s tr ik e s ) ; a t th e o th e r e x -
trem e is the
s tu d y
o f lo n g -te rm
tra n s ie n ts ,
w ith p e rio d s o f s e v e ra l m in u te so rm ore, in-
v o lv in g th e
in te ra c tio n b e tw e e n
s lo w
a u to -

m a tic c o n tro ls a n d m a n u a l c o n tro l b y s y s te m o p e ra to rs . A n d b e tw e e n is th e s tu d y o f e le c - tro m e c h a n ic a l o s c illa tio n s b e tw e e n th e s y n - c h ro n o u s g e n e ra to rs w ith in th e s y s te m . C o n - tro l f o r th e s ta b ility o f th e e le c tro m e c h a n ic a l o s c illa tio n s is th e s u b je c t o f th is p a p e r. T h e tim e p e rio d o f c o n c e rn is fro m

1to4 0 s e c

fo llo w in g a d is tu rb a n c e , a n d th e fre q u e n c y range is from0 .1 to 2 .0 H z. Because of the separation betw een the frequencyo f th e th re e ty p e s o f tra n s ie n ts , e a c h c a n b e s tu d ie d u s in g sim p lified

d y n a m ic
m odels.
I n

e le c tro m e - c h a n ic a l o s c illa tio n s tu d ie s , d e ta ile d m o d e ls are used for m achines, including their exci- ta tio n a n d g o v e rn in g s y s te m s , b u t th e h ig h - fre q u e n c y n e tw o rk tra n s ie n ts a re ig n o re d a s a re th e lo w -fre q u e n c y

s te a m

tu rb in e b o ile r dynam ics and the slow system controls (such as on-load tap changers). The resulting sys- te m

is
g o v e rn e d
b y
n o n lin e a r

d iffe re n tia l e q u a tio n s , w h ic h d e s c rib e th e in te rc h a n g e o f electrom echanical energy betw een

th e g e n -
e ra to rs th ro u g h th e tra n s m is s io n n e tw o rk .

B e c a u s e o f th e ir e s s e n tia l n o n lin e a rity , th e s ta b ility o f p o w e r s y s te m s d e p e n d s o n th e s e v e rity o f th e a p p lie d d is tu rb a n c e s . C rite ria for pow er system design specify the types of fault the system

m u s t b e a b le to w ith s ta n d
w ith o u t m a jo rlo s so fs y n c h r o n i s m
and con-

s e q u e n t b re a k u p . It is a ls o c ritic a l th a t th e p o w e r s y s te m re m a in s s ta b le w h ile o p e ra tin g with no faults. Pow er system

analysts refer
to th e s e s e p a ra te , b u t re la te d , s ta b ility p ro b -
lem s as transient stability
a n d
sm all-signal
s ta b ility , re s p e c tiv e ly . In g e n e r a l, th e s y s te m
o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s a re re s tric te d
m ost by
th e
n e e d
t o
m a in ta in
transient stability. In
recent years, however,
a s
pow er

system s h a v e b e e n o p e ra te d w ith h ig h e r p o w e r tra n s - fe r

le v e ls
t o
m eet
e c o n o m ic

c o n s tra in ts , s m a ll-s ig n a l s ta b ility p ro b le m s h a v e b e c o m e apparent. In

o rd e r to
a c h ie v e
th e

re q u ire d high transfers of power, the controls asso- c ia te d w ith th e g e n e ra to rs h a v e b e c o m e c rit- ic a l.

In special cases, asynchronous D C
tr a n s -
m ission is utilized w ith controlled
re c tific a -
tio n a t o n e e n d a n d c o n tro lle d in v e rs io n a t
th e o th e r. In a s s o c ia tio n w ith D C lin k s , a n d
in o rd e r to a c h ie v e a u n ifo rm

v o lta g e d is tri- b u tio n th ro u g h th e p o w e r s y s te m , th y ris to r- c o n tro lle d c a p a c ito rs a n d re a c to rs (s ta tic v a r com pensators) have been

fo u n d
n e c e s s a ry .

T h e s e d e v ic e s p ro v id e a d d itio n a l lo c a l c o n - tro ls th a t h a v e s ig n ific a n t e ffe c ts o n p o w e r system stability.

The power system

control designer m ust e n s u re th a t th e p o w e r s y s te m is s ta b le lo c a lly a n d

g lo b a lly .
G lo b a l
c o n tro l
i s
a c h ie v e d
through correct design
a n d
c o o rd in a tio n
o f

th e lo c a l c o n tro ls o f th e in d iv id u a l c o m p o - n e n ts o f th e p o w e r s y s te m a n d b y re s tric tin g th e

a llo w a b le
o p e ra tin g
c o n d itio n s
o f

th e s y s te m . In th is p a p e r , a n u m b e r o f s ta b ility p ro b le m s a n d th e ir s o lu tio n s a re d e s c rib e d .

L o c a l G e n e r a to r S ta b ility
T he
tw o
m ost
im p o rta n t
c o n tro lle rs
o n

m odern synchronous generators are the speed g o v e rn o r a n d th e a u to m a tic v o lta g e re g u la to r (A V R ). In an interconnected system , neither fu lfill th e ir n o m in a l fu n c tio n a lo n e : th e s p e e d g o v e rn o r a ls o c o n tro ls th e a c tiv e p o w e r s u p - p lie d b y th e g e n e ra to r to th e s y s te m ; th e A V R c o n tro ls th e re a c tiv e p o w e r s u p p lie d b y th e generator to the system .

A u to m a tic
V o lta g e R e g u la to r
T h e a u to m a tic v o lta g e re g u la to r p la y s a n
essential role
in
k e e p in g
th e
g e n e ra to r
in
s y n c h ro n is m
w ith
o th e r g e n e ra to rs
o n
th e
sy stem . In o rd e r to d o th is efficien tly , it m u st
b e
fa s t-a c tin g .
O n
a new
p la n t in

O n tario H y d ro , h ig h -g a in e le c tro n ic c o n tro ls , w ith a c o n tro lle d th y ris to r p o w e r o u tp u t s ta g e , a r e u s e d to s u p p ly th e fie ld o f th e g e n e r a to r , p ro - p o rtio n a lly to th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n

a ref-
e re n c e
signal and
th e
g e n e ra to r\u2019s
term inal
v o lta g e m a g n itu d e . T h e re s u lt is to p ro d u c e
a
h ig h ly
o s c illa to ry ,
p o te n tia lly
u n s ta b le ,
m ode
o f
e le c tro m e c h a n ic a l
e n e rg y
in te r-

c h a n g e b e tw e e n th e lo c a l g e n e ra to r a n d th e rest of the pow er system . The m ode m ay be s ta b iliz e d b y fe e d in g a n a d d itio n a l s ig n a l in to th e A V R

in p u t. M o s t c o m m o n ly , th e s ig n a l
is d e riv e d
fro m

th e s p e e d o f th e g e n e ra to r ro to r, a lth o u g h th e g e n e ra to r p o w e r a n d fre - quency also m ay be used[1 1 , [2 ].

A dynam ic com pensator is used to m odify
0 2 7 2 -1 7 0 8 1 8 9 1 0 1 0 0 -0 0 1 9
$ 0 10 0G
1 9 8 9
IE E E
J a n u a r y
1 9 8 9
1 9
the stabilizing signal to the A V R

in such a w a y th a t th e d a m p in g o f th e e le c tro m e c h a n - ic a l m o d e is in c re a s e d . T h e d e v ic e is o fte n referred to as a pow er system stabilizer. A l- th o u g h a p p a re n tly s tra ig h tfo rw a rd , a n u m b e r o f

p ra c tic a l
d iffic u ltie s
w ith
s u c h
d e v ic e s
have occurred.
O n e o f th e m o s t s e rio u s d iffic u ltie s e x p e -
rie n c e d w ith e a rly p o w e r s y s te m

s ta b iliz e rs fitte d to s te a m -tu rb in e -d riv e n g e n e ra to rs w a s th e ir in te ra c tio n

w ith
th e
tu rb in e -sh a ft
d y -

n a m ic s a n d c o n s e q u e n t in s ta b ility o f th e firs t torsional m ode. The reason for the interac- tion w as tw ofold. First, speed m easurem ent a t th e g e n e ra to r ro to r c o n ta in s a s tro n g c o m - p o n e n t o f th is to rs io n a l m o d e . S e c o n d , th e s ta b iliz e r c o m p e n s a tio n is e s s e n tia lly a p h a s e - le a d

c irc u it, w h ic h
increases the
h ig h -fre -
q u e n c y g a in o f th e s ta b iliz e r. A
c h a n g e in

the location of the speed m easurem ent trans- d u c e rs to a n o d e o f th e lo w e s t to rs io n a l to - g e th e r w ith

tu n e d
to rs io n a l
filters w as
th e
first s o lu tio n to th is p ro b le m
[2 ].This, how -
e v e r,
le d
t o
a d d itio n a l
\u201c e x c ite r
m o d e s ,\u201d
w h ic h
r e s tr ic te d
th e
s ta b iliz e r
g a in

a n d , h e n c e , th e a c h ie v a b le d a m p in g o f th e e le c - trom echanical m ode. The m ost recent sta- b iliz e rs

a c h ie v e
re je c tio n
o f
th e

to rs io n a l m o d e s b y u s in g a c o m b in a tio n o f g e n e ra to r power and

s p e e d

(the Delta PIO m ega sta- b iliz e r)[3 ].W ith th is d e v ic e , th e a d d itio n a l e x c ite r m o d e in tro d u c e d b y th e s ta b iliz e r is far less sensitive to the stabilizer gain and, th u s ,

h ig h e r
v a lu e s
o f
e le c tro m e c h a n ic a l
m o d e d a m p in g m a y b e o b ta in e d .

U n d e r tra n s ie n t c o n d itio n s fo llo w in g a s e - v e re fa u lt, th e a c tio n o f a s p e e d in p u t p o w e r s y s te m

s ta b iliz e r is o fte n o p p o s ite to th a t re - q u ire d . It is im p o rta n t th a t s ta b iliz e r o u tp u t b e re s tric te d b o th in th e p o s itiv e a n d n e g a tiv e d ire c tio n s .

T he
n e g a tiv e
lim it
is the
m ost
critical. It is n o rm ally set to b etw een- 5
a n d
-1 0
percent of the
ra te d

te rm in a l v o lta g e s e ttin g . T h e p o s itiv e lim it is n o rm a lly s e t to 2 0 p e rc e n t o f th e ra te d te rm in a l v o lta g e s e t- tin g .

P ra c tic a lly , th e s ta b iliz e r a c ts b y m o d u la t- in g th e v o lta g e in th e v ic in ity o f th e g e n e r- a to r in s u c h a w a y th a t th e g e n e ra to r e le c - tric a l to rq u e h a s a c o m p o n e n t in p h a s e w ith th e g e n e ra to r ro to r s p e e d c h a n g e . D u rin g s e - v e re s w in g s , th e v o lta g e m a y

be forced to
d a n g e ro u s ly
h ig h
le v e ls
if u n c o n tro lle d .
A

te rm in a l v o lta g e lim it s ig n a l is th u s re q u ire d , w h ic h o p p o s e s th e s ta b iliz e r s ig n a l f o r te r- m in a l v o lta g e s h ig h e r th a n th e m a x im u m s a fe le v e l. In g e n e ra l, th e lim ite r ta k e s th e fo rm o f a h ig h -g a in te rm in a l v o lta g e c o n tro l lo o p , b ia s e d o ff f o r n o rm a l v o lta g e . W h e n

o p e r- a tin g , to rs io n a l m o d e s p re s e n t in th e te rm in a l v o lta g e

signal m ay
becom e
u n s ta b le ;
it is
im p o rta n t to
lim it the
h ig h -fre q u e n c y
lo o p
g a in o f th e v o lta g e lim it c irc u it to a v o id in -
s ta b ility .
G overnor
T he
g o v e rn o r\u2019s
tim e
re s p o n s e
i s
s lo w
com pared to the frequency of the local elec-
tro m e c h a n ic a l o s c illa tio n , a n d
its d y n a m ic s
h a v e
l i t t l e
effect on
th is
m ode\u2019s
s ta b ility .
M odern steam

tu rb in e s , w ith v e ry f a s t e le c - tro h y d ra u lic g o v e rn o r v a lv e d riv e s , a re n o w being used, which have been found to give rise to to rsio n al in stab ilities sim ila r to th o se c a u s e d

b y
e a rly
pow er
s y s te m
s ta b iliz e rs .
T o rs io n a l
f ilte r s
h a v e
p ro v e d
e ffe c tiv e
in
c o n tro llin g th is ty p e o f in s ta b ility[4 ].
W ith
h y d ra u lic
generators, the governor
a u x ilia ry
c o n tro ls , w h ic h
set the
tra n s ie n t

d ro o p a n d re se t tim e , re q u ire c a re fu l tu n in g to a s s u re s ta b ility o f th e g e n e ra to r b o th w h e n running in isolation from the rest of the sys- te m

a n d
w hen
s y n c h ro n iz e d
t o
th e
s y s te m
[ 5 ] . W ith
th e
in tro d u c tio n
o f
e le c tro h y -
d ra u lic
g a te
c o n tro ls
in
m odern
h y d ra u lic
tu rb in e g o v e r n o r s , th e re is s c o p e f o r th e in -
tro d u c tio n o f m o re ra d ic a l c o n tro l d e s ig n .
I n te r a r e a S ta b ility
F o llo w in g
b o th
sm all
a n d
la rg e

d is tu r- bances, a pow er system experiences low -fre- q u e n c y

o s c illa tio n s ,
w h ic h
a re
a s s o c ia te d
w ith
g ro u p s
o f
s y n c h ro n o u s
g e n e ra to rs
s w in g in g
against other groups
of synchro-
nous generators through w eak
transm ission

c o n n e c tio n s . T h e fre q u e n c ie s o f th e s e in te r- a re a m o d e s a r e lo w e r th a n th o s e o f th e lo c a l m odes. In general, interarea m odal frequen- cies lie in th e ran g e o f 0 .1 to0 .8 H z, w hereas the local m odal frequency range is from0 .8 to2 .0 H z. The low er m odal frequency and th e

fact that m any
m a c h in e s p a rtic ip a te
in
th e
m ode m ake
in te ra re a o s c illa tio n s m o re
difficult to
c o n tro l
th a n

lo c a l o s c illa tio n s . N onetheless, it has not yet been found nec- essary to use centralized controls to stabilize these m odes.

Power system
s ta b iliz e rs o n la rg e g e n e r-
a tin g
u n its
c a n
b e
d e s ig n e d
t o
h e lp

dam p in te ra re a m o d e s in w h ic h th e g e n e ra to rs a re s ig n ific a n t p a rtic ip a n ts

[6 ]. T hus, it is im -
p o rta n t th a t th e d y n a m ic c o m p e n s a to ra s s o -
c ia te d w ith e a c h p o w e r s y s te m

s ta b iliz e r is d e s ig n e d to e n s u re a p o s itiv e c o n trib u tio n to d a m p in g o f a ll m o d e s h a v in g fre q u e n c ie s b e - tw e e n

0 .1
a n d
2 .0
H z. This may

e n ta il a s lig h t re d u c tio n in th e d a m p in g o f th e h ig h e r- frequency local m odes.

At the
lo w e r e n d
o f th e
in te ra re a
m ode
fre q u e n c y
ra n g e , b o th h y d ra u lic
a n d
s te a m
tu rb in e d y n a m ic s c a n a ffe c t th e d a m p in g o f
th e m o d e . T h e n o n m in im u m -p h a s e
c h a ra c -
te ris tic o f th e h y d ra u lic tu rb in e c a n c a u s e th e
tu rb in e
to rq u e
t o
in c re a s e
w ith
in c re a s in g
s p e e d
ra th e r th a n
decrease, as required
t o

dam p system oscillations. In steam turbines, th e re h e a te r s ta g e tim e c o n s ta n t is th e c ritic a l e le m e n t, w h ic h

m ay
in tro d u c e a p h a s e
la g
a n d
re d u c e th e lo w -fre q u e n c y
d a m p in g . In
b o th
ty p e s o f tu rb in e , a

sim ple phase-lead com pensator m ay be used in the governor to e n s u re th a t th e tu rb in e c h a ra c te ris tic s d o n o t in c re a s e th e ris k o f lo w -fre q u e n c y , in te ra re a in s ta b ility[7 ],[ 8 ] .

T r a n sie n t S ta b ility
F o llo w in g la rg e s y s te m d is tu rb a n c e s , s o m e
s y n c h ro n o u s
g e n e ra to rs
m ay
sw ing
s u f f i-
c ie n tly to lo s e s y n c h ro n is m

w ith the system . This is prevented, for a w ide range of spec- ified, severe system

fa u lts b y th e p ro v is io n
o f
a n
a d e q u a te
transm ission

s y s te m , w ith ra p id fa u lt c le a ra n c e fa c ilitie s , a n d b y s e ttin g s y s te m

operating lim its. T he system
d e s ig n

a n d its o p e ra tin g lim its a re b a s e d o n e x te n - s iv e s im u la tio n o f th e n o n lin e a r s y s te m e le c - tro m e c h a n ic a l d y n a m ic s . T h e s ta b ility o f th e system follow ing a severe fault can be aided significantly by the installation o f fast-acting A V R s o n m a jo r g e n e ra tin g u n its . A s n o te d p re v io u s ly ,

fa s t-a c tin g
A V R s g e n e ra lly
re -
quire power system

s ta b iliz e rs to g iv e a d e - q u a te s m a ll-d is tu rb a n c e s ta b ility . T h e p o w e r s y s te m

s ta b iliz e rs m a y n o t p ro d u c e th e c o r-
re c t c o n tro l in p u t to th e
A V R
fo llo w in g
a
la rg e
s y s te m
d is tu rb a n c e ,
a n d
a d d itio n a l
o v e m d in g
n o n lin e a r c o n tro ls
m ay
b e

n e c - essary. In O ntario,the Transient System Ex- c ita tio n C o n tro l (T S E C )[9 ]is used to force u p th e v o lta g e a t th e te rm in a ls f o r g e n e ra to rs a c c e le ra tin g

fo llo w in g
a
fa u lt. T h e
m a x i-
m um
v o lta g e
is lim ited
b y
a
special fast-
a c tin g ,
b a n g -b a n g
v o lta g e
lim iter

system . TSEC is operative for only the first sw ing of the system

o s c illa tio n fo llo w in g th e f a u lt.
D irect C u rren t T ran sm ission

Thus far, synchronous generator controls a n d th e ir in flu e n c e o n d iffe re n t a s p e c ts o f th e s ta b ility

of power system s have
b e e n
d is -
cussed. A s a result of various system

c o n - s tra in ts , s o m e te c h n ic a l a n d s o m e e c o n o m ic , D C

transm ission
i s
b e in g
u s e d
m o re
a n d
m ore.
T h e c h a ra c te ris tic s o f th e firin g a n g le c o n -
tro ls (p o le c o n tro ls ) a t th e re c tifie r a n d
in -
v e rte r in te rfa c e s b e tw e e n th e D C
transm is-
s io n
a n d
th e
A C
transm ission
c a n
h a v e
a

s ig n ific a n t im p a c t o n b o th lo c a l a n d g lo b a l s ta b ility . T h e p o le c o n tro ls c a n a ffe c t th e s ta - b ility o f n e a rb y g e n e r a to r s ; it is u s u a l to s u p - p ly s u p p le m e n ta ry c o n tro ls to p re v e n t in s ta - b ility .

T h e p o le
c o n tro ls
g e n e ra lly
h a v e
a
20
IE E EC o n tr o lS y s te m sM a g a z in e

h ig h b a n d w id th a n d in te ra c tio n b e tw e e n th e c o n tro ls , a n d th e s h a ft to rs io n a l d y n a m ic s o f n e a rb y

s te a m
tu rb in e s
h a v e
p ro d u c e d

to r- s io n a l in s ta b ility th a t w a s s ta b iliz e d b y m o d - ify in g th e h ig h -fre q u e n c y

c h a ra c te ris tic s o f th e c u rre n t c o n tro l lo o p a n d a d d in g a n o tc h filte r to th e p o w e r m o d u la tio n c o n tro l[1 0 1 .

Because the D C

transm ission can control s ig n ific a n t a m o u n ts o f p o w e r , its e ffe c t o n th e d a m p in g o f in te ra re a m o d e s c a n b e c o n - siderable. T he need for an A C system w hose v o lta g e is re la tiv e ly in s e n s itiv e to c h a n g e s in th e p o w e r tra n s m itte d th ro u g h th e D C

s y s - te m h a s le d to a d d itio n a l v o lta g e c o n tro l d e - vices, such as static var com pensators

a n d synchronous condensers, being placed in the A C system close to the D C transm ission ter- m inals.

Thus far, the controls for each D C trans-
m ission system

h a v e b e e n d e s ig n e d in d iv id - ually. There are insufficient D C links in ser- vice to draw

g e n e ric c o n c lu s io n s a b o u t th e ty p e o f c o n tro l n e e d e d to e n s u r e g lo b a l a s w ell as local stability. A s the transm ission c a p a b ility o f D C

lin k s is g r o w in g , th e re is little d o u b t th a t th e ir in te ra c tio n w ith th e s y s - te m

is lik ely to b e m o re sev ere in fu tu re sy s- te m s a n d th a t s p e c ia l c o n s id e ra tio n w ill h a v e t o

b e
g iv e n
t o

th e e ffe c t th a t th e ir c o n tro l d e s ig n h a s o n th e g lo b a l s ta b ility o f th e s y s - te m

[ l l ] .
A n a ly s isT o o ls
B ecause
o f
th e
s iz e
o f
pow er
s y s te m
m o d e ls b e in g u s e d in s ta b ility a n a ly s is , s p e -
c ia lly
d e v e lo p e d
c o m p u te r
p ro g ra m s
a re
u s e d .
S te p -b y -s te p
in te g ra tio n
o f n o n lin e a r
e q u a tio n s o f th e s y s te m
is used in the study
o f tra n s ie n t s ta b ility .
F o r sm all-signal sta-
b ility s tu d ie s , e q u a tio n s a r e lin e a riz e d a b o u t
a n o p e ra tin g p o in t, a n d
e ig e n v a lu e a n d
e i-
g e n v e c to r te c h n iq u e s
a re
u s e d
t o
p e rfo rm
m odal analysis of the system . O ntario H ydro
c u rre n tly
uses programs
i n
w h ic h
system s
h a v in g u p to 1 2 ,0 0 0 A C n e tw o rk n o d e s a n d
1500 synchronous m achines m ay

be repre- sented. U p to 1000 of the synchronous m a- c h in e s m a y b e m o d e le d , in d e ta il, w ith A V R a n d g o v e rn o r, le a d in g to , p o te n tia lly , 1 5 ,0 0 0 d y n a m ic s ta te s[121. C learly , the consistency of data for such system m odels is as m uch a c o n c e rn

a s th e m a th e m a tic a l te c h n iq u e s
o f
m o d e lin g a n d a n a ly s is[1 3 1 .
F o rtu n a te ly ,
th e
s ta b ility
p ro b le m s
e n -

countered in regular pow er system design are often m ore local in nature, and reduced-or- d e r

m o d e ls
c a n
b e
d e te rm in e d
th a t
a d e -
quately represent the system
fo r th e ir s tu d y .
I n
p a rtic u la r,
th e
d e s ig n

of A V R s, gover- nors, and pow er system stabilizers fo r sm all- s ig n a l s ta b ility o fte n c a n b e p e rfo rm e d u s in g

a m o d e l o f a s in g le g e n e ra to r c o n n e c te d v ia
a
transm ission
lin e
t o
a
c o n s ta n t
v o lta g e
s o u rc e
(infinite bus). Large

m o d e lso fth e system are, how ever, still necessary to check th e s e

lo c a lly
d e s ig n e d
c o n tro lle rs
for their
effect on
th e
g lo b a l s ta b ility
o f th e
pow er
s y s te m
[6]. For transm ission
s y s te m

d e s ig n a n d th e d e te rm in a tio n o f o p e ra tin g lim its to en su re tran sien t stab ility in th e first few sec- o n d s fo llo w in g a fa u lt, a re d u c e d -o rd e r sy s- te m

m a y b e s im u la te d th a t re ta in s d e ta il in an area close to the fault, w ith distant gen- erators represented by aggregate m odels[1 4 1 ,

[151. Low-frequency
in te ra re a
o s c illa tio n s
e x c ite d b y

severe disturbances m ay lead to groups of generators losing synchronism after s e v e ra l p e rio d s . A c c u ra te s im u la tio n o f th is phenom enon requires extensive system m od- e lin g b e y o n d th e im m e d ia te v ic in ity

o f th e fa u lt. A lth o u g h it m a y b e p o s s ib le to p ro d u c e reduced-order m odels, the concepts of close and distant areas m ay

not be
v a lid . A d d i-
tio n a l w o rk is re q u ire d o n s y s te m
re d u c tio n

te c h n iq u e s to a llo w th e re te n tio n o f th e lo w - frequency m odes, accurate in both frequency a n d d a m p in g , a n d w h ic h m a in ta in th e b a s ic

s tru c tu re o f th e o rig in a l p o w e r s y s te m m o d e l.
V a lid a tio n
o f th e s im u la tio n

m o d e ls is a c o n tin u in g p ro c e s s . F ie ld te s ts , w h ic h c a n b e c a m e d o u t w ith

n o
r is k
t o
s y s te m
p e rfo r-
m ance, are used
in
O n tario
H y d ro
t o
im -

p ro v e th e d e ta ile d m o d e lin g o f th is p a rtic u - la rly im p o rta n t p la n t. T h is le a v e s in q u e s tio n th e a c c u ra c y o f s im u la tio n s fo llo w in g m a jo r s y s te m

d is tu rb a n c e s .
T ra n s ie n ts

fo llo w in g n a tu ra lly o c c u m n g fa u lts a r e m o n ito re d a n d com pared

w ith
s im u la tio n s
o f
th e
sam e
e v e n ts to
p ro v id e
p o in te rs to
th e
n e e d
fo r
d y n a m ic m o d e l re fin e m e n t.
G eneral C om m en ts

T h e d e g re e o f s ta b ility o f p o w e r s y s te m s is le s s im p o rta n t th a n in m a n y o th e r c o n tro l p ro b le m s . W h a t is re q u ire d is fo r th e p o w e r s y s te m

to rem ain

s ta b le o v e r a w id e ra n g e o f o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s . O s c illa tio n s o f a b o u t 1 H z in fre q u e n c y w ith a d a m p in g

ratio of
0 .0 5
are com m only encountered
a s s o c ia te d
w ith s y n c h ro n o u s m a c h in e s h a v in g s lo w e x -
c ita tio n
system s and
no power system
s ta -

bilizers, and w hich give rise to no stability p ro b le m s . T h e re is little n e e d , th e re fo re , fo r o p tim a l

d e s ig n
o f
c o n tro lle rs
in

o rd e r to m a x im iz e d a m p in g . I n d e e d , b e c a u s e o f th e n o n lin e a r n a tu reo f th e s y s te m d y n a m ic s , th e robustness of optim al controls, based on lin- ear analysis, is often suspect [16]. A ny de-

sign based
o n lin e a r a n a ly s is o f a re d u c e d
s y s te m
s h o u ld
b e
c h e c k e d
e x te n s iv e ly
b y
n o n lin e a r
sim u latio n
o f
th e
fu ll
in te rc o n -
nected system
[6 ].
T he
m odes
o f
o s c illa tio n
in v o lv in g
th e
s y s te m
a s a w h o le , th e in te ra re a e le c tro m e -
c h a n ic a l o s c illa tio n s ,
n o rm a lly
c a n
b e

s ta - b iliz e d b y d e c e n tra liz e d c o n tro lle rs p la c e d a t th o s e g e n e ra tin g u n its th a t p a rtic ip a te s ig n if- ic a n tly in th e m o d e . H o w e v e r , th e a d v e n t o f m u ltite rm in a l D C lin k s im b e d d e d w ith in th e A C system m ay w ell require centralized D C p o le

c o n tro ls
t o
e n s u re
g lo b a l
s y s te m
s ta b ility .
Robustness of power system
c o n tro l d e -

s ig n is im p o rta n t b u t h a s b e e n a p p ro a c h e d in a very practical sense thus far. Lack ofro - b u s tn e s s q u ic k ly

show s w hen com m ission- in g a n d o p e ra tin g n e w p la n ts a n d im m e d ia te steps are necessary to rectify problem s en- c o u n te re d . In s o m e c a s e s , q u ic k s o lu tio n s to local robustness problem s have ledt og lo b a l s ta b ility p ro b le m s a s th e p o w e r s y s te m

h a s
d e v e lo p e d .F o rexam ple, pow er system

s ta - bilizers designed for correct com pensation at a s in g le lo c a l m o d e

natural frequency
c a n

d e s ta b iliz e lo w e r-fre q u e n c y in te ra re a m o d e s . A n o th e r e x tre m e c a s e c o u ld b e th a t s p e c ia l c o n tro ls d e s ig n e d

f o r th e p ro te c tio n
o fe x -
p e n s iv e p la n ts c o u ld
c a u s e th e
p la n t to
b e
trip p e d fro m
the system

to th e d e trim e n t o f th e s ta b ility o f th e o v e ra ll p o w e r s y s te m . C o - o rd in a tio n o f c o n tro l d e s ig n

is clearly
n e c -
e s s a r y .

F o r th e fu tu re , th e re is a n e e d f o r c o n tin - u e d w o rk in th e d y n a m ic s im u la tio n o f v e ry large system s. The developm ent of efficient te c h n iq u e s th a t u tiliz e th e fu n d a m e n ta l p h y s - ical properties of the pow er system , such as s in g u la r m a n ifo ld s[171, are required to ease th e

c o m p u ta tio n a l b u rd e n
o f tra n s ie n t
a n d

s m a ll-d is tu rb a n c e s ta b ility s tu d ie s . M e th o d s for m ore system atic w ays to ensure robust- n e s s , a p p lic a b le a t th e d e s ig n

s ta g e , w o u ld a ls o b e u s e fu l. H o w e v e r, a s w ith a ll e v o lv - in g s y s te m s , th e re is a lw a y s th e p o s s ib ility of new

m e th o d s o f c o n tro l in te ra c tin g
i na n
u n e x p e c te d
w ay
t o
in tro d u c e
p o te n tia lly

u n s ta b le m o d e s . S u c h d e v e lo p m e n ts a re d if- ficult to forecast and indeed may be hidden b y o v e rs im p lifie d m o d e lin g in th e in itia l d e - s ig n s ta g e s . T h e r e f o r e , it is im p o rta n t th a t any assum ptions m ade in the power system m odel

m ust
b e
re a lis tic .
O v ersim p lified

m o d e ls s h o u ld b e tre a te d w ith e x tr e m e c a u - tio n a n d u s e d to p ro v id e o n ly q u a lita tiv e re - sults of a general nature.

C o n c lu s io n s
C o n tro l is v ita l to m a in ta in th e s ta b ility o f
m odem
in te rc o n n e c te d

pow er system s. A l- though a vast am ount of experience has been a c c u m u la te d in th e la s t 2 0 y e a r s , th e c h a n g - in g n a tu re o f th e p o w e r s y s te m

c o n tin u e s to
p ro v id e c h a lle n g e s to th e
s y s te m
d e s ig n e r.
J a n u a ry
1 9 8 9
2 1

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