Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
7Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
00493519 Interconnected System Frequency Response

00493519 Interconnected System Frequency Response

Ratings: (0)|Views: 259|Likes:
Published by api-3697505

More info:

Published by: api-3697505 on Oct 17, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

Interconnected System Frequency R esponse
R o g e rL . K in g a n d M in h - L u a n N g o
D e p a rtm e n to f E le c tr ic a l& C o m p u te r E n g in e e r in g
M is s is s ip p i S ta te U n iv e r s ity
M is s is s ip p i S ta te , M S 3 9 7 6 2 - 9 5 7 1
A b stract
F r e q u e n c y m a n a g e m e n t isa p r im a r y g o a l in th e c o n tr o l
o fa n
e le c tr ic p o w e r s y s te m .

T r a d itio n a lly , th is h a s b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d v ia tie -lin e b ia s c o n tr o l w ith in a w e ll d e fin e d control area.

H owever, the control area' sfr e q u e n c y b ia s c h a r a c te r is tic , w h ic h is a n im p o r ta n t c o m p o n e n t in th e tie - lin e

b ia s c o n tr o l e q u a tio n , is a
d g fic u lt te r m
t o

q u a n tih . T h isisd u e to th e f a c t th a t th is te r m r e p r e s e n ts th e c o m b in e d droop characteristicso f

a ll th e g e n e r a to r s s e r v in g th e lo a d
plus thefrequency dependencyo f th e lo a d .
H ow ever, since
m o s t lo a d fr e q u e n c y c o n tr o lle r s u s e in te g r a l c o n tr o lle r s , th is
in a b ility to a c c u r a te ly q u a n ti&

the control area'sfr e q u e n c y response characteristic has not caused unacceptable control e r r o r s . B u t, a s th e p o w e r in d u s tr y m o v e s in toanew era, the c o n tr o l s c h e m e s m u s t b e r e -e x a m in e d in th e lig h to f th e n e w system operating rules.

T h is p a p e r w ill in tr o d u c e s o m e n e w id e a s o n fr e q u e n c y m a n a g e m e n t th a t u tiliz e w h a ti sr e f e r r e d t o

i n
th is p a p e r
a s
th e
in te r c o n n e c te d
system frequency
response characteristic,, ( j s y 9

T h is p a p e r w ill e x p la in th e p r o b le m s a s s o c ia te d w ith th e p r e s e n t a p p r o a c h a n d w h y th is n e w

m e th o d
o ffe r s im p r o v e m e n ts f o r

large control areas, e s p e c ia lly in th e n e w c o m p e titiv e e n v ir o n m e n t. A n a n a ly tic a l a p p r o a c h f o r d e te r m in in g

,(jsclsysin real-tim e w ill be show n.
This approach
h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e d w ith s y s te m
lo a d d a ta
fr o m
th e S o u th e r n E le c tr ic S y s te m .
K eyw ords:
F re q u e n c y
b ia s
c o e ffic ie n t,
A rea
g e n e ra tio n
c o n tro l, A re a c o n tro l e rro r
C ontrol areas and A G C
T h e e le c tric u tility s y s te m in th e U n ite d S ta te s is d iv id e d
in to m a n y in te rc o n n e c te d c o n tro l a re a s .

Each of these areas is re s p o n s ib le fo r g e n e ra tin g e n o u g h p o w e r to m e e t its o w n c u s to m e rs o r " n a tiv e lo a d ."

B y k e e p in g th e g e n e ra te d p o w e r e q u a l to th e p o w e r c o n s u m e d b y th e lo a d , u tilitie s k e e p th e overall system

frequency at6 0H z.
U n d e r-g e n e ra tio n w ill
c a u s e
th e
fre q u e n c y
t o
d ro p
b e lo w
6 0
H z
w h ile
o v e r-g e n e ra tio n w ill c a u s e th e fre q u e n c y to ris e a b o v e6 0 H z.
S in c e th e lo a d s in th e s y s te m
a re c o n s ta n tly c h a n g in g , th e
R o g e lio L u c k
D e p a rtm e n to f M e c h a n ic a l E n g in e e r in g
M is s is s ip p i S ta te U n iv e r s ity
M is s is s ip p i S ta te ,M S 3 9 7 6 2 -9 5 5 0

g e n e ra tio n le v e li n e a c h a re a m u s t b e c h a n g e d a s w e ll, in o rd e r to m a in ta in th e d e s ire d fre q u e n c y . T h e v a rio u s c o n tro l a re a s a re in te rc o n n e c te d b y tra n s m is s io n lin e s c a lle d tie -lin e s . P e rio d ic a lly , th e d iffe re n t a re a s c o n tra c t s a le s o fb u lkpow er fro m o n e to a n o th e r a c ro s s th e s e tie -lin e s . F o r e x a m p le , o n e area m ay agree to buy 100M W so f p o w e r fro m its n e ig h b o r fo r th e n e x t h o u r. T h e tw oa re a s th e n a d ju s t th e ir g e n e ra tio n le v e ls in

o rd e r to
cause the
1 0 0 M W s to
flo w
o u t o f th e
s e llin g a re a a n d in to th e b u y in g a re a a c ro s s th e tie -lin e .

T h is p ra c tic e a d d s a n o th e r fa c to r to g e n e ra tio n c o n tro l. N o t o n ly m u s ta r e a sa d ju s t th e ir g e n e ra tio n to m e e t th e ir ow n c h a n g in g

n a tiv e
lo a d , b u t
th e y
m ust
a ls o
m a in ta in

a n y s c h e d u le d tie -lin e tra n s a c tio n s . It is p o s s ib le , b y m o n ito rin g b o th th e tie -lin e flo w a n d th e s y s te m fre q u e n c y to d e te rm in e th e p ro p e r g e n e ra tio n a c tio n (ra is e o r lo w e r). T h u s , e le c tric u tilitie s u se a n a u to m a tic g e n e ra tio n c o n tro l (A G C ) system to b a la n c e th e ir m o m e n t-to -m o m e n t e le c tric a l g e n e ra tio n to lo a d w ith in a g iv e n c o n tro l a re a .

T h e p rim a ry o b je c tiv e s o fA G C
are: (a) to keep tie line
in te rc h a n g e s
a s
s c h e d u le d ,
(b )
t o
m a in ta in
th e
s y s te m
frequency at the nom inal frequency(6 0 H zi n the U .S .A .),
(c) to
o p e ra te w ith
security in
m in d
(i.e., w ith
s u ffic ie n t
re s e rv e
t o
a c c o m m o d a te
d is tu rb a n c e s
i n
dem and
o r
g e n e ra tio n ), (d ) to o p tim iz e e c o n o m ic a l o p e ra tio n , a n d(e )t o
m axim ize
c o m p lia n c e
w ith
N o rth
A m erican
E le c tric
R e lia b ility C o u n c il(N E R C )g u id e lin e s[1 1 .
R egardlesso f
th e s e
g u id e lin e s , a n y
g o o d
c o n tro lle r
fo r
lo a d -fre q u e n c y
b a la n c e s h o u ld b e
d e s ig n e d to
reject frequency
a n d
lo a d
disturbances, i.e., item s (a), (b), and (c).
N E R C
g u id e lin e s

exist to enforce item s (a), (b ),a n d (c ) in a m a n n e r c o n s is te n t th ro u g h o u t th e in te rc o n n e c te d s y s te m b y e s ta b lis h in g b o u n d s in th e p e rfo rm a n c e o f th eA G C s.

T ie -lin e b ia s c o n tr o l

T he c u rre n t p ra c tic e o f th e lo a d fre q u e n c y c o n tro l (L F C ) h c t i o n o f a u to m a tic g e n e ra tio n c o n tro l (A G C ) is b a s e do n a

s tra te g yknow n
a s tie -lin e b ia s c o n tro l.
I n
th is c o n tro l
s tra te g y
e a c h
a re a
o f
a n
in te rc o n n e c te d
s y s te m
t r i e s
t o
re g u la te its a re a c o n tro l e rro r (A C E ) to z e ro , w h e re :
3 0 6
0 -8 1 8 6 -7 3 5 2 -4 /9 6$ 0 5 .0 00 1 9 9 6 IE E E
T he term
T ,-T , is th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e a c tu a l a n d th e
s c h le d u le d
n e t
in te rc h a n g e
o n
th e
t i e
lin e s .
T he
te rm
re p re s e n tin g
th e
a r e a 's
n a tu ra l
re s p o n s e
t o
fre q u e n c y
d e v ia tio n s is lO p (f,-f,).
T h e c o e ffic ie n t,p ,is k n o w n a s th e
s y s te m
natural response coefficient.
It is d iffic u lt to o b ta in
a n
a c c u ra te v a lu e o fps in c e it d e p e n d s o n
th e g o v e rn o r
re slp o n se c a p a b ility o f th e g e n e ra tin g u n its p re s e n tly o n -lin e
a n d th e
fre q u e n c y d e p e n d e n c e o f th e c o n s ta n tly c h a n g in g
lo a d .
T his characteristic is expressed as:
p
=
- +
D
1
R
w here,
1 iRis th e g e n e ra to r re g u la tio n o r d ro o p ,
Dis th e lo a d d a m p in g C h a ra c te ris tic .
Ris th e s te a d y s ta te c h a ra c te ris tic re la tin g fre q u e n c y o f a
g e n e ra to r to
generated pow er (see figure
1 ).
Id e a lly , th e
s y s te m
in d iv id u a l u n it d ro o p c h a ra c te ris tic s a re
set to
b e
a b o u t
e q u a l
t o
m in im ize
tu rb in e
g o v e rn o r
o s c illa tio n .
T y p ic a lly , d ro o p s a re d e sig n e d to ra n g e fro m
3to5 p e rc e n t.
In o th e r w o rd s , a g o v e rn o r d ro o p c h a ra c te ris tic o f5 %
m eans
a
5%

change in frequency (e.g., 3H zo n a6 0H z system ) w ill re s u lt in a u n it c y c lin g its o u tp u t fro m z e ro tofu ll lo a d . H o w e v e r, a c c o rd in g to

a
recent EPRI survey, the
d ro o p
c h a ra c te ris tic s
o f
th e
generators m easured
i n
th e
s u rv e y
a c tu a lly ra n g e d fro m
6 .9to 1 2 .2 p e rc e n t [2 ].
These values
a re m u c h h ig h e r th a n th e c o m m o n ly a n tic ip a te d ra n g e o f3t o
5p e rc e n t.
r
I
4
I
U
U n ito u tp u t
P
0
F ig u re 1 S p e e d d ro o p c h a ra c te ris tic o f a g o v e rn o r.
I)re p re s e n ts th e s e lf-re g u la tin g c h a ra c te ris tic o f th e lo a d .
It is e x p re s s e d a s th e p e rc e n t c h a n g e in th e c o n n e c te d lo a d
d iv id e d b y th e p e rc e n t c h a n g e in fre q u e n c y .
In -o th e r-w o rd s,
as system
lo a d in c re a s e s th e
s y s te m
frequency decreases.
T h e n , s in c e a p o rtio n o f th e lo a di sfre q u e n c y d e p e n d e n t, th e
fin a l lo a d w ill b e le s s th a n th a t a t ra te d fre q u e n c y .

Since a control area'spis c o n tin u o u s ly c h a n g in g a n d n o g o o d te c h n iq u e h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e d to m e a s u re it in re a l-tim e , it m u st b e e s tim a te d . T h e e s tim a te d v a lu e o fpis c a lle d th e T ie -L in e F re q u e n c y B ia s C o e ffic ie n t, B

[3 ].
The closerB
m a tc h e sp , th e b e tte r A G C w ill b e a b le to re d u c e th e n u m b e r
o f
u n n e c e s s a ry
c o n tro l a c tio n s
a n d
m in im ize
in a d v e rte n t
e n e rg y
flo w s.
N E R C
g u id e lin e s re q u ire
th a t th e
a n n u a l
estim ate fo r B
be based on the average of the area'sB ,a s
observed for past disturbances during peak hours.
N E R C

a ls o re q u ire s th a t th e m o n th ly a v e ra g e o f1BIs h o u ld n o t b e le s s th e n1 %o f th e c o n tro l a re a 's a n n u a l e s tim a te d p e a k lo a d [I]. T h erefo re, it is co m m o n p ractice fo r a u tility to u se1 % o f

i t s
annual peak
lo a d
a s
i t s
v a lu e
fo r
B
i n
th e
A C E
e q u a tio n (e q u a tio n1 ).
T h e g e n e ra to r's
d ro o p c h a ra c te ris tic a n d th e

fre q u e n c y dependency of the load perm it frequency m anagem ent of a c o n tro l a re a to b e s o m e w h a t s e lf-re g u la tin g .

H ow ever, since
th e re
is a
strong desire to
k e e p

fre q u e n c y a t its n o m in a l v a lu e , th e re m u st b e a s u p p le m e n ta l c o n tro l s y s te m (A G C ) to a d ju s t a u n it's o u tp u t to b rin g th e s te a d y s ta te fre q u e n c y b a c k to n o m in a l.

S in c e
th e
control areas
o p e ra te
a s
a n
in te rc o n n e c te d

s y s te m , it is im p o rta n t fo r a p a rtic u la r c o n tro l a re a 's A G C to b e a b le to d e te rm in e th e s o u rc e o f a d is tu rb a n c e (i.e ., in s id e or outside of its area).

T h is ta s k is a c c o m p lis h e d w ith th e
A C E
e q u a tio n a n d tie -lin e b ia s c o n tro l.

U sing the system fre q u e n c y a n d th e n e t p o w e r flo w in g o v e r th e tie -lin e s , A G C c a n d iffe re n tia te b e tw e e n a n in te rn a l a n d e x te rn a l d is tu rb a n c e . If it is a n in te rn a l d is tu rb a n c e , it w ill b e th e ta s k o f th e lo c a l A G C to a d ju s t a re a g e n e ra tio n to m e e t th e lo a d .

If it is an
e x te rn a l d is tu rb a n c e , th e
c o n tro l
a r e a 's
o b lig a tio n
i s
t o
p ro v id e p o w e r to th e a ffe c te d c o n tro l a re a in a p ro p o rtio n
e q u iv a le n t to
th e
control area's
natural system
re s p o n s e
c o e ffic ie n t,p .
A ctu alv s estim ated A C E
The actual error betw een generation and load of an area
is th e a re a 's a c tu a l A C E .
T h e e s tim a te d A C E is c a lc u la te d
u s in g
th e
e s tim a te d
v a lu e s
o f
th e
t i e
lin e
in te rc h a n g e ,
fre q u e n c y d e v ia tio n s fro m
th e n o m in a l, a n d th e e s tim a te d
fre q u e n c y b ia s fa c to r, B .
I ti sth is e s tim a te d A C E
that is
u s e da sac o n tro l v a ria b le b yA G C .

W hen the frequency bias o f th e e s tim a te d A C E m a tc h e s w ith th e a c tu a l fre q u e n c y b ia s o f th e

a re a , th e
estim ated A C E
a n d
th e
a c tu a l A C E
a re
id e n tic a l [3 ].
S in c e o n e o f th e
o b je c tiv e s o f A G C
is to
re g u la te g e n e ra tio n , its in p u t s h o u ld b e th e a c tu a l A C E .
I t
c a n b e a rg u e d th a t in te g ra l a c tio n in A G C
re s u lts in b o th
a c tu a l a n d e s tim a te d A C E b e in g a v e ra g e d to z e ro o v e r tim e ,
b u t
th e
transient response
of
A G C
c a n
b e
s ig n ific a n tly
d e g ra d e d
b y
e rro rs
i n
th e
fre q u e n c y
b ia s
fa c to r.
F o r
e x a m p le , v a ria tio n s in th e e s tim a te d A C E c a n b e m u c h la rg e r
307
th a n v a ria tio n s in th e a c tu a l A C E , if th e fre q u e n c y b ia s te rm
in th e e s tim a te d A C E is to o la rg e .
A ls o , a n e s tim a te d A C E
b a s e d
o n
a c o n s ta n t fre q u e n c y b ia s fa c to r is n o n -lin e a rly
re la te d
t o
th e
re q u ire d
c h a n g e
in
g e n e ra tio n
b e c a u s e
th e
actual frequency bias

fa c to r is n o n -lin e a rly re la te d to th e o p e ra tin g s ta te o f th e a re a , i.e ., fre q u e n c y a n d lo a d . U sin g an e s tim a te d A C E b a s e d o n a c o n s ta n t fre q u e n c y b ia s s e ttin ga s th e

s y s te m
e rro r
in
A G C
in tro d u c e s
a n
u n d e s ira b le
n o n lin e a rity in to th e c o n tro l s y s te m .
T o
i l l u s t r a t e
th e s e
p o in ts ,
th e
e s tim a te d
fre q u e n c y
re s p o n s e s ,
1 0 B (f,-fs), for the
S o u th e rn E le c tric S y ste m
(S E S ) w e re c a lc u la te d fo r th e m o n th o f J u ly 1 9 9 4 . F o r 1 9 9 4 ,
SE Su s e d a c o n s ta n tB c o e ffic ie n t o f 3 2 1 M W /O .lH z . T h e
calculated values are the average frequency responses over a
th irty d a y s p e rio d .
T h e c a lc u la te d v a lu e s o f th e fre q u e n c y
response can be seen in Table 1.
Frequency Response Term
of ACE
I
S E S 'S B
I
+ lo %
B
I
-1 0 %
B
S ta n d a rd
D e v ia tio n
(M W )
1 1
I
I
I I
2 8 .7 7 2 9
3 1 .6 5 0 9
2 5 .8 9 6 1
I
-0 .4 9 0 9
I
-0 .5 3 9 9
I
-0 .4 4 1 8
1 1
1 1
E;
T a b le1:
C a lc u la te d F re q u e n c y R e s p o n s e w ith D iffe re n t
B 'sfo r th eSE S J u ly 1 9 9 4 d a ta .
T a b le
1 s h o w s th a t th e
m ean
v a lu e
o f th e

fre q u e n c y re s p o n s e te rm o f th e A C E e q u a tio n a c tu a lly u s e d o n th e S E S is less than

0 .5
M W .
T h is

is a s e x p e c te d s in c e in te g ra l a c tio n o f th e c o n tro lle r s h o u ld w o rk to z e ro o u t th e e rro r. N o te th a t 9 5 %

o f th e e x c u rs io n s fo r th e m o n th w e re w ith in
5 7 .6 M W
(i.e ~ ,

tw o s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n s ). H o w e v e r, n o te th a t if th eBcoefficient was1 0 percent higher (and NERC prefers u tilitie s

t o
e rr
to w a rd s
s u p p ly in g
a d d itio n a l
fre q u e n c y
response), then the mean would worsen by
10 percent.
In
th is
c a s e , tw o
s ta n d a rd
d e v ia tio n s
w o u ld
b e
6 3 .3
M W .
C o n v e rs e ly , if th eB
coefficient w as
10 percent less than

w hati sp re s e n tly u s e d , a n im p ro v e m e n t in th e in a d v e rte n t e n e rg y in te rc h a n g e a n d a n im p ro v e m e n t in th e m a g n itu d e o f th e e x c u rs io n s w o u ld b e n o te d .

Frequency support
I n
te x tb o o k s
d e a lin g
w ith
th e
s u b je c t
o f

a u to m a tic g e n e ra tio n c o n tro l [4 ] it is s h o w n th a t th e c h a n g e in s te a d y s ta te fre q u e n c y d u e to a n in c re m e n ta l c h a n g e in lo a d p o w e r in a p a rtic u la r c o n tro l a re a is :

A ls o , s in c e c o n tro l a re a s a re in te rc o n n e c te d , it c a n
b e
s h o w n th a t th e c h a n g e in th e s y s te m

steady state frequency d u e to a n in c re m e n ta l c h a n g e in lo a d p o w e r in a p a rtic u la r c o n tro l a re a is :

-
A P L I
P ,
+
P *
+
a
* *
+
P "
A m
=
(4)
T h e a s s u m p tio n th a t th e s y s te m fre q u e n c y is c o n s ta n t is v a lid
if th e tie -lin e s in te rc o n n e c tin g th e c o n tro l a re a s a re s tiff.
T o illu s tra te th e fre q u e n c y s u p p o rt o ffe re d b y o p e ra tin g
in
a n
in te rc o n n e c te d p o w e r s y s te m
c o n s id e r th e
fo llo w in g
exam ple (see figure 2 ).

First, consider the case w here A rea 1 h a s its th re e tie -lin e s o p e n a n d is o p e ra tin g in is o la tio n a n d th e re

is no
A G C
o p e ra tin g .
A ssum e

th is c o n tro l a re a 's natural response characteristic,p ,is 3 0 0 M W /O .lH z b a s e d u p o n th e 1 % o f p e a k lo a d g u id e lin e . N o w , w h a t h a p p e n s if

th e
a re a
experiences a
10 MW
in c re a s e
in
lo a d ?
F ro m
e q u a tio n 3 , it c a n b e s e e n th a t th e s te a d y s ta te fre q u e n c y
d e v ia tio n w ill b e a - 0 .0 0 3 3 3 H z .

The decrease in frequency i se x p e c te d d u e to th e fa c t n o A G C w a s a v a ila b le to c h a n g e th e g e n e ra to r o u tp u ts to m a tc h th e

1 0M W
load increase.
N ow
c o n s id e r
w hat
h a p p e n s
i f
th is
sam e
s y s te m
i s
in te rc o n n e c te d w ith th re e s m a lle r c o n tro l a re a s w ithp 'sof 75
M W /O .lH z a n d A re a 1 a g a in e x p e rie n c e s a1 0M W
in c re a s e
in lo a d .
A g a in , th e re a re n o A G C s o p e ra tin g in a n y o f th e
control areas. From

e q u a tio n4 ,it c a n b e d e te rm in e d th a t th e in te rc o n n e c te d s y s te m h a s a s te a d y s ta te fre q u e n c y d e v ia tio n o f -0 .0 0 1 9 H z .

T h is is a 4 3 .4 %
im p ro v e m e n t in fre q u e n c y
m a n a g e m e n t d u e to th e in te rc o n n e c tio n .
A re a3
A re a2
A re a4
F ig u re2 F o u r c o n tro l a re a s in te rc o n n e c te d .
H ow ever, this frequency support doesn o tcom e for free
o n
th e
in te rc o n n e c te d s y s te m .
Using the
sam e
s c e n a rio s
p o s tu la te d
above, it can
b e
s e e n
in
th e
is o la te d
c o n tro l
s y s te m th a t fo r a 0 .0 0 3 3 3 H z c h n a g e in fre q u e c n y , th e u n its
3 0 8

Activity (7)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
asokant liked this
hasib5504 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->