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Linha Do Tempo 60000a1

Linha Do Tempo 60000a1

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Timeline: 60,000 to 1001 BCE
60,000Humans (homo sapiens) are limited to Africa and number around 10,000.
50,000Humans, running from drought have left Africa, taking a coastal route to India and
then to Australia.
35,000Some people from Africa migrated inland to Central Asia, and their descendants
have branched out, one branch to Europe another to East Asia.

30,000In Europe, Neanderthal's have become or are becoming extinct.
20,000By now, among other places in the world, humans are in southern Greece.
15,000Descendants of people who left Africa have crossed the Bering Straits to North

America.
10,000Humans have spread into most habitable places. Sparse populations allow for
hunting game, gathering food that grows wild and drifting from campsite to campsite.
Storytelling and myth is a major pastime.
8000Hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia begin growing crops to supplement their food
supply. A walled settlement exists at Jericho - near the Dead Sea in the Fertile Crescent of
the Middle East.
7000In the Fertile Crescent, people have begun farming and raising animals. Their farms

anchor them to one place. Gods are seen as settled into a temple and place. Still seeing
everything as magic and their crops subject to the vicissitudes of weather, people intensify
their pleadings to the gods to help their crops grow. They sacrifice humans, sending them as
gifts to the gods.

6000Growing crops and domesticating animals have begun in southern and eastern
Europe, including Greece. Agriculture is developing among hunter-gatherers in southern
Mexico. Along the upper Nile, people are growing sorghum, millet and wheat.
5500People in China are planting seeds.
4500>Agriculture has spread from Greece into central Europe. Farming reappears in

Africa south of the Sahara in the Niger Basin in the West. The Sahara at this time is grass
and woodland with an abundance of rainfall, rivers, lakes, fish and aquatic life. People there
are growing crops and raising sheep, goats and cattle.

4000The wooden plow is being used in central Europe.
3500.Sumerians have migrated to Mesopotamia and have taken over villages and the

agriculture of others. Food surpluses are allowing a diversity of occupations to develop: soldier, farmer, craftsperson, merchant. Individual possession of land has been replacing communal possession.

3500.Desert is forming in North Africa. People have fled from drought to the Nile River,
where they trap water for irrigation and begin an intense agriculture in what is otherwise
desert.
3000Among the Sumerians, democratic assemblies are giving way to the authority of

kings. Priesthood is becoming distinct from working alongside others in the fields. Field
labor is described as deserved subservience to the gods. Hardship is seen as a product of
sin. People and animals are still sacrificed to gods. Floods are common and a story of a
great flood exists. Trade and wealth are pursued. Competition for power between the kings
of city-states is producing wars of conquest. The warrior tradition continues with men
dominating women. With commerce, writing develops.

3000Commerce and writing develop in Egypt. Egypt is united through warfare. Human

and animal sacrifices continue. Egyptians have many gods but Egypt is without rain and
has no myth of a flood. The rule of Egyptian kings is claimed to be associated with the
gods. Kings are believed descended from the gods and deserving much more than common
folk.

2600Agricultural people give rise to the Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley.
2300Indo-Europeans move into southern Greece. They conquer and make themselves an

aristocracy over those who had migrated there many centuries before. These latest migrants
are to be known as the Mycenae Greeks, who have gods similar to other Indo-Europeans,
including a father god of the sky called Zeus, whom they believe has power over the entire
world.

2250The Mycenae Greeks are in contact with sea-going tradesmen, the Minoans of Crete
- a commercial society ruled by the wealthy.
2200Troy, a coastal town in Asia Minor, known as Troy II among archaeologists (a
second level settlement with numerous others to be built on top in coming centuries) is
destroyed by fire.
2200A Semite to be known as Sargon the Great takes power in the Sumerian city of Kish.
He conquers in the name of the Sumerian god Enlil and builds an empire across
Mesopotamia and Syria.
2150The empire of Sargon's grandson, Naramsim, is overrun by migrating Gutiens.
Naramsin's subjects blame their misfortune on their having angered their gods.
2130.Reduced waters in the Nile are accompanied by political upheaval. By now

instability within the royal families of Egypt have ended various dynasties, and now an
eighth dynasty of kings loses power. Two hundred years of political chaos has begun.
Common folks attack the rich and local lords assume power independent of any king.

2000Give or take a century or two, Malay people begin migrating from the Asian

mainland, across the ocean, to join others on Indonesian islands, bringing with them the
cultivation of rice and domesticated animals. People called Mon migrate from Central Asia
to the southern tip of Burma, where they began growing rice. People leave the Mulucca
Islands and migrate eastward to islands north of Australia.

1950.The Sumerians have been overrun by Amorites and are to disappear as a
recognizable people. Their writings, stories and gods are to endure. Sumerian language is to
be what Latin will be in Europe in early modern times.
1900.Egypt is united again, followed by the rule of King (Pharaoh) Amenemhet I.

Common people have failed to win political power, and local lords are subservient again to
one king, but common people and lords have won recognition of having an afterlife like
kings. And more importance is given by all to the goddess of justice, Ma'at.

1800Migrants in magnificent little boats reach Micronesia.
1800.An Amorite king at Babylon, Hammurabi, extends his empire from the Persian Gulf

to the city ofHaran. He builds roads, creates a postal system and sees himself as conqueror
of the world. Babylon is lush with agriculture. In the name of his god of justice,
Hammurabi gives his subjects laws about mistreatment of each other.

1750Along the Yellow River (Huang He), conquerors start building what would be

known as the Shang civilization, eventually to stretch four or five hundred miles. The main
concern of the Shang kings is power. They take slaves and practice human sacrifice to
please the gods they fear. Women are subservient to men. Shang kings claim to be
descended from ancestors who reside in heaven. Canals are dug for irrigation.

1750A literate people move through Canaan, take control of some cities there, and then

they conquer northern Egypt. They have horses and light-weight chariots and introduce the
Egyptians to the wheel, new musical instruments, new techniques for making bronze and
pottery, new kinds of crops, new gods and new weapons of war. The Egyptians call them
Hyksos.

1700Rainfall declines in the Indus Valley and Mohenjo-Daro civilization disappears.
1593Hittites from Asia Minor, with horses and lightweight chariots, sack Babylon, ending
the dynasty that had been created by Hammurabi. Then they withdraw.
1525The Egyptians drive the Hyksos from their land. The Egyptian king, Thutmose I, and
his subjects pursue the Hyksos through Canaan and into Syria.
1500. Aryan nomads with horses and light-weight chariots packed in their wagons drop

out of the mountains eastward into the Indus valley. They bring with them their sacred
hymns and oral history - stories that express their desire to please the gods, including their
god Dyaus Pitar (Sky Father).

1480Hurrians, from the Zagros Mountains, dominate the city of Mari, on the upper

Euphrates, and Nuzi, a thriving commercial center. They have overrun and dominate the
Assyrians. And around this time they battle the Egyptians who are still in the north around
Syria.

1350.The Egyptian king, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) rules. He tries to force his subjects
to worship the god Aton, whom he believes is the god of the universe. Egypt has withdrawn
from Syria and Canaan.
1300.The Assyrians have benefited from the decline of the Hurrians and are in control all

of Mesopotamia. People from Micronesia have sailed into Melanesia, including the
Solomon and Fiji islands. Writing has appeared in Shang civilization, with characters partly
pictorial and partly phonetic, and bronze casting has developed.

1200Tribal peoples from Central Asia had been moving westward with their herds,

running from droughts. They are pushing other tribal peoples into Asia Minor. Hittites are
overrun and begin to disappear as a recognizable people. Waves of illiterate migrants
overrun Greece, beginning a "dark age" there. Brown-skinned people begin migrating
eastward into Polynesia, to the Tonga and Samoan islands.

1177.People in boats, perhaps escaping from invasions into Greece, raid the coast of Egypt
and are driven off. They land farther east and are to be known as Philistines.
1050.A century or so after the arrival of the Philistines, Hebrews, occupying hilly regions
in the Land of Canaan, combine their forces for the first time and confront an army of
Philistines near the Philistine outpost at Aphek, and they lose the battle.
1010.The Hebrew David conquers and subjugates Amorities - also known as Canaanites.
David has acquired some Canaanite culture and is a man of his time.
1000Shang rule is overthrown by rugged nomadic warriors. A new dynasty of Zhou kings

rule. They claim that in heaven their gods have ousted the rule of the Zhang gods. A
shortage of rainfall sends Aryan tribes from the Indus Valley to the plains of the Ganges
Valley. Aryan tribal kings have been changing from elected leaders to autocratic rulers,
allying themselves with the priesthood and associating themselves and their power with
their gods. People in western Africa are clearing portions of tropical forest with stone axes.
They plant yams, harvest fruits and palm nuts and keep goats. In eastern Africa, south of
the Sahara, cattle raising is spreading alongside people who farm.

970King David is succeeded by his son Solomon. Hebrews are writing a Phoenician
language that includes words of Sumerian origin and have learned stories carried by that

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