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Advanced Quantum Mechanics

Advanced Quantum Mechanics

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quantum mechanics
quantum mechanics

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arXiv:quant
-ph/0608140
v118Aug2006
F. J. Dyson
ADVANCED
QUANTUM MECHANICS
Second Edition
ADVANCED QUANTUM MECHANICS
Lecture notes by Professor F. J. Dyson for a course in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
given at Cornell University in the Fall of 1951.
Second Edition
The \ufb01rst edition of these notes was written by Professor Dyson. The second edition was prepared by
Michael J. Moravcsik; he is responsible for the changes made in the process of re-editing.
Generally used notation:
A\u2217
:
complex conjugate transposed (Hermitian conjugate)
A+
:
complex conjugate (not transposed)
A
:
A\u2217 \u03b2= A\u2217 \u03b34= adjoint
A\u22121=
inverse
AT=
transposed
I
=
identity matrix or operator
i
Table of Contents
Introduction
1
Subject Matter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Detailed Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
One Particle Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
The Dirac Theory
4
The Form of the Dirac Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Lorentz Invariance of the Dirac Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
To Find the S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
The Covariant Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Conservation Laws \u2013 Existence of Spin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Elementary Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Hole Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Positron States \u2013 charge conjugation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Electromagnetic Properties of the Electron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 The Hydrogen Atom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Solution of the radial equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Behavior of an Electron in non-relativistic approximation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Summary of Matrices in the Dirac Theory in our notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Summary of Matrices in the Dirac Theory in the Feynman notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Scattering Problems and Born Approximation
22

General Discussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Projection Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Calculation of Spurs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Scattering of two electrons in Born Approximation \u2013 The M\u00f8ller Formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Relation of Cross Sections to Transition Amplitudes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Results for M\u00f8ller Scattering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Note on the Treatment of Exchange E\ufb00ects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Relativistic Treatment of Several Particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Field Theory
32

Classical Relativistic Field Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Quantum Relativistic Field Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
The Feynman Method of Quantization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
The Schwinger Action Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
A. The Field Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
B. The Schr\u00a8odinger Equation for the State-function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
C. Operator Form of the Schwinger Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
D. Canonical Commutation Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
E. The Heisenberg Equation of Motion for the Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
F. General Covariant Commutation Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
G. Anticommuting Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

ii

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