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LIGHTING THE WAY — Keven Krenz (8420) briefly doffs hisface mask for a photo at the chamber of the extreme ultra-violet lithography device where workers align light used topattern circuits in this potential next-generation approachto microchip manufacturing. Sandia is making the EUVLtool as part of the largest-ever funds-in DOE CRADA($250M over 5 yrs). See the EUVLentry below.(Photo by Randy Montoya)
Toward the beginning of each calendaryear the
Lab News 
sums up Sandia NationalLaboratories
principal achievements duringthe previous fiscal year. This issue of LabsAccomplishments continues that tradition.All Sandia divisions were invited to sub-mit achievements; submissions selected bythe VPs
offices are presented on the followingpages. The work was accomplished mostlyduring the fiscal year that ended Sept. 30,2000. Key Sandia organizations contributingto each accomplishment are in parentheses atthe end of each entry. Also
new this year
a key contact name and e-mail address foreach submission are included.You
ll note that the work is presentedhere by category. We find this organizationalapproach to be helpful, but it is important torecognize that such categorization, particularlyin a multiprogram, multidisciplinary laboratorysuch as Sandia, is to some extent arbitrary.Much of the work listed under the category
Nuclear weapons,
for example, could veryappropriately have been listed under
Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
(EUVL)extends current lithography capability to the sub-100 nanometer feature size, allowing fabricationof microprocessors with 100 times the speed and1,000 times the memory of today’s integrated cir-cuits. Sandia activities in EUVL include precisionengineering, modeling and simulation, andprocess development activities. Once complete,the EUVL tool will be capable of printing featuresas small as 70 nm. This program is the largest-everfunds-in DOE CRADA ($250M over 5 yrs). (8400,8700, 2300, 2200)
 Bill Replogle, wcreplo@sandia.gov
The Southwest as a Region of InnovationConference
2000 brought together representa-tives from Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, andUtah to work toward creation of a southwesternMicrosystems Industry Cluster. The Albuquerqueconference attracted 338 attendees who discussedhow to form this cluster and focused on using themicrosystems expertise, facilities, and resourcespresent in the Southwest. A regional LeadershipTeam was formed and is working toward thiscluster creation. The new Microsystems andEngineering Sciences Applications facility isenvisioned as the cluster cornerstone facility.(14000, 1000, 1300, 1700, 1900, 12100, 12600)
 Jackie Kerby Moore, jskerby@sandia.gov
Sandia and ten industry partners have signedthe
Cold Spray Consortium
cooperative researchand development agreement, under which theLabs will develop and commercialize Cold Spraytechnology over three years. In this process,metal or composite powders, accelerated to highvelocities in a compressed gas jet, bond to a targetsurface by a process similar to explosive welding,but on a micro-scale. Depositing metals/compos-ites in the solid state opens exciting new designand manufacturing possibilities. (1800, 9100,1300)
 Mark Smith, mfsmith@sandia.gov
Sandia researchers, in partnership with theUNM Cancer Center, were instrumental inobtaining a $1 million grant for UNM Health Sci-ences from the Keck Foundation to support devel-opment of 
new tools for research in functionalgenomics
. By combining optical imaging devicesdeveloped as part of our satellite program,chemometrics data analysis routines developedfor materials characterization, and datamining/visualization software (VxInsight
Special SectionJanuary 26, 2001
(Continued on next page)
To all Sandians: 
In Donald Stokes
, it was suggested that the bestmodel for advancing science and technologymay well be toseek new
whilealso seeking new
for sci-ence and tech-nology. It is amodel we atSandia greatlyrespect.This year,the challenge of marrying usewith under-standing appearsto have beenwell met. Thisreport chroniclesmany accomplishments, large and small, bytechnical teams, support staff, and individualresearchers. I believe you will agree with methat Sandians have made many importantadvancements.
Great significance, new possibilities
Some of the achievements are already of great significance, like the innovations thathave kept America
s nuclear weapons safeand reliable. Others opened up new possibil-ities to create new strengths for the future,including advances in short-pulse lasers; inultra-high magnetic pressures; in nanotech-nology; in miniaturized sensors and circuitry;in missile defense targets and advanced satel-lites; in new energy conversion technology;and in supercomputing, information sys-tems, and cybersecurity.
The greatest privilege
The opportunity the nation affords us toparticipate in the creation of new knowledge,as we also help to solve important nationalproblems, makes working in the Laboratoriesperhaps one of the greatest privileges any cit-izen can have.C. Paul Robinson
 Labs Director and President 
A note to readers 
SANDIALAB NEWSLabs Accomplishments 2001Page 2
they proposed, and were funded todevelop, a next-generation gene chipmicro-array scanner. (1800, 9200,5700)
 David Haaland,dmhaala@sandia.gov
The New Mexico Legislature passedlegislation that allows Sandia to earn atax credit of up to $1.8 million inreturn for assisting small businesses inthe state. Through its New MexicoSmall Business Assistance Program, San-dia is using Labs expertise and capabili-ties to
help small businesses resolvetechnological problems or businessissues.
The program is geared to helpretain current small businesses, gener-ate additional employment opportuni-ties, and expand the base of suppliers for Sandiaand other large entities in New Mexico. (1300,12000, 14000)
Olen D. Thompson, odthomp@sandia.gov
Recent licenses with startups MEMX Inc. andNovint Inc., grant Sandia an equity position ineach company in exchange for rights to developbusiness around Sandia intellectual property.These
first-of-a-kind (for Sandia) equity licenses
offer an opportunity to share in the companies
technical developments and financial successeswhile enabling Sandia to better meet its nationalsecurity missions by developing a regional sup-plier base through the licensing of importanttechnologies. Novint is launching products basedon haptics, a technology that adds the sense of touch to 3-D computer interfaces, while MEMX, aspin-off company from Sandia
s microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS) development activ-ity, will commercialize a MEMS-based opticalswitch for the telecommunications industry.(1300, 1700, 9200)
Olen Thompson,odthomp@sandia.gov
Sandia and industry partners have launchedthe
Radio Frequency CRADA
to explore the pos-sibility of commercial manufacture of complexelectronic assemblies for weapon applications. InFY00 this CRADA delivered prototype assembliesproduced on state-of-the-art automated manufac-turing lines, using commercial off-the-shelf com-ponents, at a fraction of the cost traditionallyincurred for similar products. Continued successof this CRADA may significantlyreduce the cost of RF assemblies forweapon needs in the future. (2300,1700, 1800, 14100, FM&T)
 Ron Diegle,rbdiegl@sandia.gov
Sandia and other organizations inDOE
s nuclear weapons complex(NWC) renegotiated
a volume pur-chasing agreement
with ParametricTechnology Corporation for use of itsPro/E software, the standard 3D solidmodeling tool used by the weaponsprograms. The deal saves Sandia $1/2million. The three-year agreementcovers 226 Sandia users of Pro/E, andincludes the flexibility to adjust thatnumber to accommodate changingprogram needs. This effort representsthe establishment of a significant part-nership between members of theNWC and a key software provider forthe complex. (2900, 10200)
CharlesFleetwood, cdfleet@sandia.gov
Sandia licensed its technology in a unique,emerging microelectromechanical systems tech-nology known as LIGA to photonic subsystemprovider AXSUN Technologies. LIGA, anacronym from the German words for lithography,electroplating, and molding, is a
technique thatallows precise microstructures to be fabricated
from metals, plastics, and ceramics. After a suc-cessful prototyping effort at Sandia, AXSUN com-mitted to establishing a Livermore-based LIGAproduction facility. The facility will manufacturealignment structures for use in AXSUN
s opticalproducts. The licensed Sandia know-how enablesAXSUN to more quickly establish productioncapabilities. (8700, 11600)
 Jill Hruby, jmhruby@sandia.gov
Sandia has
successfully simulated a sectionof the RHP (radiation-hardened Pentium)
microprocessor using the Sandia-developed Chile-SPICE
circuit simulator. Production runs usingChileSPICE have reduced simulation time from3-10 times when compared to commercial simu-lators. The increased performance and enhancedconvergence technologies will lead to improvedcircuit designs on a much larger scale than can beachieved today. Initial performance evaluationsof Xyce
, the next generation massively parallelcircuit code, show a dramatic improvement in cir-cuit simulation performance. (1700, 9200, 8400,2300, 9300)
Steven Wix, sdwix@sandia.gov
We have made
significantadvances in theparallel performance and physical fidelity
of our suite of electromagnetics and plasma physicscomputational tools, collectively named EMPHA-SIS. EMPHASIS is used to qualify systems tointense electromagnetic and X-ray environments,design high-frequency electronics, and modelpulsed power components. We are using it toassess shielding effectiveness of a Lockheed Mar-tin system. One EMPHASIS tool has demonstratedperformance of 1 trillion operations per secondon Sandia
s teraflops computer. Another hasnovel algorithms to dynamically balance thecomputational load. (1600, 9200)
 Mark Kiefer,mlkiefe@sandia.gov
microstructure-property material model
that can predict the accurate stress and failureresponse for component designs and/or manufac-turing processes received an R&D100 award. Threeexamples exemplify the model. The size/weight of automotive components was lowered resulting inreduced emissions and conservation of fuel. Themultiphase aspect of the material model was usedin a commercialized heat treatment simulationtool for process design involving carburizing andquenching phase transforming alloy steels. Third,the model was used to optimize die design in aweapons component forging process. (8700)
 Mark  Horstemeyer, mfhorst@sandia.gov
Predictive modeling of the dynamics of struc-tures with bolted interfaces is of broad engineeringinterest. The damping generated in bolted joints isparticularly difficult to model. A combined exper-imental and analytical program initiated at Sandiafocused on the damping mechanisms in boltedinterfaces and led to the
discovery of an underly-ing power law relationship
between the appliedforce and the energy dissipation per cycle.Promising reduced-order analytical models devel-oped will be important to successful modeling of weapon system structural performance. (9100)
 Dan Gregory, dlgrego@sandia.gov
GOMA software team
has used its broadcustomer base in defense programs and industryto guide successful research, code development,and analysis projects. In an effort to bring a sci-ence-based understanding to manufacturingprocesses, the GOMA team has worked with man-ufacturing personnel and material scientists inthe areas of welding, brazing, cermet processing,and encapsulation. Driving projects from modeldevelopment to code implementation andfinally performing high-fidelity engineeringanalysis has required a team effort with a respectfor the talent each member brings to the team.(9100, 9200, 1800, 8700)
 Justine Johannes, jejo-han@sandia.gov
The SALINAS massively parallel 3D struc-tural dynamics code was used to
complete criti-cal simulations of W76 system response
tohostile radiation environments, running for 24hours on 2000 ASCI Red processors. Sensitivityand optimization analyses were performed onthe arming, fuzing, and firing (AF&F) modelusing Sandia
s DAKOTA software package. Ahigh-fidelity model for timing and scaling stud-ies was generated with CUBIT advanced mesh-ing software. The Sandia team greatly exceededthe milepost success criteria, demonstratingcapability beyond anything commercially avail-able. (9100, 9200, 9300)
 James Peery, jspeery@sandia.gov
Engineering Sciences 
Four Sandia researchers have agreed to join a private spin-off company,MEMX, Inc., to commercialize Labs-developed microsystems technology. They are, from left,Paul McWhorter, Sam Miller, Jeff Sniegowski, and Steve Rogers. (Photo by Randy Montoya)
(Continued on page 5)
RESULTSof a simulation for the USCAR CRADA showthat Sandia
s microstructure material property modelpredicts the exact location of the initial failure site. Themodel prediction was performed ahead of the test toensure its predictive capability. Note that the predictedinitial failure site was identical to the experiment.EMPHASIS calculated magnetic fields in a cavity contain-ing cable-connected circuit-board modules in responseto an external electromagnetic environment.
Labs Accomplishments 2001
Page 3
Sandia made significant contribu-tions to the Nation
s missile defenseeffort during the previous year in theareas of targets for system testing, lethal-ity, threat and countermeasures, andnavigation, guidance, and control. We
provided target objects for threeNational Missile Defense IntegratedFlight Tests
and two National MissileDefense Risk Reduction Flights. Sandiaalso provided high-fidelity, scaled targetsfor lethality impact testing, and sup-ported the analyses of the data fromthese tests with over 100 high-resolutionhydrocode calculations. In addition,Sandia is providing the navigation, guid-ance and control system for the first twoNational Missile Defense interceptor pro-totype booster systems.
 Jerry Langheim,grlangh@sandia.gov
The Advanced Firing & DetonationSystems and Microsystems Advanced &Exploratory (A&E) projects demonstrated
a wide range of new technologies forfuture firing system applications
innuclear weapon refurbishment and DoDfuzing options. These included SurfaceMicromachine (SMM) and LIGAstronglinks, Direct Optical Initiation(DOI) firing sets and micro-DOI concepts,optical charging and triggering of Capaci-tive Discharge Units (CDUs), and severaltechnologies necessary for microfiringsets. Several demonstration units werefabricated in partnership with the KansasCity plant. (2000, 2100, 2500, 1700,1100, 1800, 8400)
 Larry Hostetler,ldhoste@sandia.gov
The most detailed structural dynamicmodel validation experiments ever per-formed on a nuclear weapon system werecompleted this year on the W76/Mk4Reentry Body (RB). These experimentssuccessfully
identified modes of vibra-tion as high as 1,000 Hz
for the RB andeach major subassembly. The test seriesdiscovered significant unit to unit vari-ability for frequencies above 1,000 Hz. Data gath-ered from multilevel shock and vibration inputswill be critical to the validation of high-fidelitymodels that mimic the nonlinear behavior of realweapon structures. (9100, 2100)
 Randy Mayes,rlmayes@sandia.gov
New Weapon Evaluation Test Laboratory(WETL) autho-rized:
After operat-ing in a more than30-year-old pre-fabbuilding for years,the constructionconcept for a newstate-of-the-art facil-ity for Sandia sur-veillance programspassed its final hur-dle, the DOE Exter-nal Review. Designfor this $24 million facility will be done this year,with construction the following two years. Blend-ing the best of the reshaped core surveillance andenhanced surveillance program, this modernfacility that will begin to move the DOE toward apredictive capability. (2900, 7800, 9500)
W. L. Norris, wlnorri@sandia.gov
Working with our counterparts at the KansasCity plant
we designed and built two versions
of prototype firing sets for the W76 Arming, Fuz-ing, and Firing life extension program. Throughthe use of simulation and rapid prototyping toolsand techniques, we were able to go from paperdesigns to hardware, demonstrating form, fit, andfunction in less than a year. In addition, thesetools allowed us to evaluate and solve a variety of design and manufacturing issues before the proto-types were fabricated. (2600)
 Jim Hole, jwhole@sandia.gov
Military Liaison Department,
inpartnership with the DoD and the military,implemented an upgraded Unsatisfactory Report-ing system for nuclear weapons, ancillary equip-ment, and publications. The system, known asthe
Workflow Enabled UR System,
has yieldeddramatic improvement in tracking steps in theprocess and sped up the answer to the operationalunit. DOE recognizedthis effort through theDOE/AL PerformanceExcellence Award for theWeapons Surety Divi-sion
s Weapons LogisticsQuality Program (SilverMedal). (2900, 9500)
 J. Mike Rhoads, jmrhoad@sandia.gov
On Sept. 22, 2000,the W76-0/Mk4 becamethe first enduring stockpile weapon to
completethe DOE Seamless Safety Process
for Disassem-bly & Inspection operations at the Pantex plantin Amarillo. The project included development of new tooling, new procedures, a Weapon SafetySpecification, a Hazards Analysis, and hazardscontrols. DOE authorization for W76 operationsmakes it possible to conduct weapon surveillanceassessments at Pantex, which provide essentialinformation about weapon reliability and state-of-health. (2100, 1600, 8400, 12300)
 J. Paul Atencio, jpatenc@sandia.gov
The Nuclear Weapons Council has authorizedinitiation of the
W76 Life Extension Project.
Authorization was the culmination of a multiyeareffort to assess the warhead state-of-health,develop refurbishment options, and generatemanagement processes and plans to meet aggres-sive requirements. The conceptual design incor-porates new perfor-mance options andchallenges Sandia toimplement technicalinnovation and employ new modeling andsimulation tools. Key to winning authoriza-tion was our systematic scrutiny of require-ments and design options, our plan to reuseselected components, incorporate high-grade commercial electronic parts, stream-line production and qualification processes,and rigorously manage risk. (2100, 1700,2300, 2500, 2600, 8400, 9100, 9800, 12300,15300, and KCP)
Patrick Sena, pasena@sandia.gov
Using modern predictive analyses cou-pled with limited field testing, the
B61-11ALT 349 weapon design was certified
forstockpile use by Sandia and Los Alamosnational labs. The final Design Review AndAcceptance Group (DRAAG) meeting for theB61-11 ALT 349 was held in September atSandia. The DRAAG wields the authority toaccept/reject a weapon for use in the stock-pile. The design was recommended foracceptance as a standard stockpile item bythe DRAAG to the Nuclear Weapons CouncilStanding and Safety Committee in Decem-ber 2000. (NW)
Kevin Eklund,kreklun@sandia.gov
In situ-Impregnated Gel Capacitor
is being developed as the energy storagedevice in firing sets for several Stockpile LifeExtension Programs (SLEPs). The gel/Mylardielectric system results in a volume reduc-tion greater than two when compared to theair/Mylar dielectric used in the majority of fir-ing sets for the enduring stockpile. Further, acost savings of almost an order of magnitudeis realized when compared to older dielectricsystems used in other stockpile weapons. Theprocess has been successfully scaled up from10 to 80 capacitors per run. (1700)
 L. Roge Edwards, lredwar@sandia.gov
In-Ground Storage Vault (IGSV)
was designed and constructed to providehigh-security, temporary (two-year) storagefor the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) fuelmaterials. This state-of-the-art facility yieldsannual security cost savings of approximately $6million and is the first step in a comprehensiveplan to insure that the SPR is available at a rea-sonable cost to meet essential nuclear weaponstesting requirements. That plan will culminate inconstruction of a new high-security SandiaUnderground Reactor Facility (SURF) to housefuture SPR operations. (6400, 5800, 7100, 7800)
Kenneth Reil, koreil@sandia.gov
The DOE National Nuclear Security Adminis-tration Office of Transportation Safeguards (OTS)must meet the highest security standards becauseits mission is critical to the continued effectiveoperations of the nuclear weapons complex. San-dia was directly responsible for four of six manda-tory milestones required to obtain acceptable OTSsecurity ratingsfrom DOE HQ,and ensure
unin-terrupted opera-tion of the trans-portation fleet.
All milestoneswere met, andthe OTS securityrating wasupgraded. (NW)
 M. Brad Parks,mbparks@sandia.gov
Reliabilityand data credi-bility probabil-ity analyses
havebeen completed for the B61-7/11 and RedesignedW76 Type 2F telemetry systems. Both studiesused a new methodology for estimating the relia-bility of commercial parts, as well as a software
Nuclear weapons 
MINUTEMAN 2 BOOSTER launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., aspart of the National Missile Defense initiative, in which Sandia provided targetobjects and other vital support.
S CONCEPT of new Weapon Evaluation Test Laboratory.IN THE CABof an armoredSafeguards tractor.
(Continued on next page)

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